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Author Entwistle, J.; Slater, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Making space for 'the social': connecting sociology and professional practices in urban lighting design Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication The British Journal of Sociology Abbreviated Journal Br J Sociol  
  Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages 2020-2041  
  Keywords Sociology; Society; Lighting  
  Abstract Lighting is increasingly recognized as a significant social intervention by both lighting professionals and academic social scientists. However, what counts as 'the social' is diverse and contested, with consequences for what kind of 'social' is performed or invented. Based on a long-term research programme, we argue that collaboration between sociologists and lighting professionals requires negotiating discourses and practices of 'the social'. This paper explores the quality and kinds of spaces made for 'the social' in professional practices and academic collaborations, focusing on two case studies of urban lighting that demonstrate how the space of 'the social' is constrained and impoverished by an institutionalized division between technical and aesthetic lighting. We consider the potential role of sociologists in making more productive spaces for 'the social' in urban design, as part of the central sociological task of 'inventing the social' (Marres, Guggenheim and Wilkie 2018) in the process of studying it.  
  Address (down) Department of Sociology, London School of Economics; d.slater(at)lse.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0007-1315 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30864152 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2265  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Evans, J.A.; Carter, S.N.; Freeman, D.A.; Gorman, M.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dim nighttime illumination alters photoperiodic responses of hamsters through the intergeniculate leaflet and other photic pathways Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Neuroscience  
  Volume 202 Issue Pages 300-308  
  Keywords Animals; Biological Clocks/physiology; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Cricetinae; Darkness; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Geniculate Bodies/*physiology; *Lighting; Male; Motor Activity/physiology; Phodopus; *Photoperiod; Visual Pathways/*physiology  
  Abstract In mammals, light entrains the central pacemaker within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) through both a direct neuronal projection from the retina and an indirect projection from the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) of the thalamus. Although light comparable in intensity to moonlight is minimally effective at resetting the phase of the circadian clock, dimly lit and completely dark nights are nevertheless perceived differentially by the circadian system, even when nighttime illumination is below putative thresholds for phase resetting. Under a variety of experimental paradigms, dim nighttime illumination exerts effects that may be characterized as enhancing the plasticity of circadian entrainment. For example, relative to completely dark nights, dimly lit nights accelerate development of photoperiodic responses of Siberian hamsters transferred from summer to winter day lengths. Here we assess the neural pathways underlying this response by testing whether IGL lesions eliminate the effects of dim nighttime illumination under short day lengths. Consistent with previous work, dimly lit nights facilitated the expansion of activity duration under short day lengths. Ablation of the IGL, moreover, did not influence photoperiodic responses in animals held under completely dark nights. However, among animals that were provided dimly lit nights, IGL lesions prevented the short-day typical expansion of activity duration as well as the seasonally appropriate gonadal regression and reduction in body weight. Thus, the present data indicate that the IGL plays a central role in mediating the facilitative effects of dim nighttime illumination under short day lengths, but in the absence of the IGL, dim light at night influences photoperiodic responses through residual photic pathways.  
  Address (down) Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA. jevans@msm.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0306-4522 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22155265; PMCID:PMC3578228 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 87  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Evans, J.A.; Elliott, J.A.; Gorman, M.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Circadian effects of light no brighter than moonlight Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms  
  Volume 22 Issue 4 Pages 356-367  
  Keywords Animals; Biological Clocks/physiology/*radiation effects; *Circadian Rhythm; Cricetinae; Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation; Lighting/*methods; Male; Mesocricetus; Motor Activity; Oscillometry; Photic Stimulation/methods; *Photoperiod; Physical Conditioning, Animal; Time Factors  
  Abstract In mammals, light entrains endogenous circadian pacemakers by inducing daily phase shifts via a photoreceptor mechanism recently discovered in retinal ganglion cells. Light that is comparable in intensity to moonlight is generally ineffective at inducing phase shifts or suppressing melatonin secretion, which has prompted the view that circadian photic sensitivity has been titrated so that the central pacemaker is unaffected by natural nighttime illumination. However, the authors have shown in several different entrainment paradigms that completely dark nights are not functionally equivalent to dimly lit nights, even when nighttime illumination is below putative thresholds for the circadian visual system. The present studies extend these findings. Dim illumination is shown here to be neither a strong zeitgeber, consistent with published fluence response curves, nor a potentiator of other zeitgebers. Nevertheless, dim light markedly alters the behavior of the free-running circadian pacemaker. Syrian hamsters were released from entrained conditions into constant darkness or dim narrowband green illumination (~0.01 lx, 1.3 x 10(-9) W/cm(2), peak lambda = 560 nm). Relative to complete darkness, constant dim light lengthened the period by ~0.3 h and altered the waveform of circadian rhythmicity. Among animals transferred from long day lengths (14 L:10 D) into constant conditions, dim illumination increased the duration of the active phase (alpha) by ~3 h relative to complete darkness. Short day entrainment (8 L:16 D) produced initially long alpha that increased further under constant dim light but decreased under complete darkness. In contrast, dim light pulses 2 h or longer produced effects on circadian phase and melatonin secretion that were small in magnitude. Furthermore, the amplitude of phase resetting to bright light and nonphotic stimuli was similar against dimly lit and dark backgrounds, indicating that the former does not directly amplify circadian inputs. Dim illumination markedly alters circadian waveform through effects on alpha, suggesting that dim light influences the coupling between oscillators theorized to program the beginning and end of subjective night. Physiological mechanisms responsible for conveying dim light stimuli to the pacemaker and implications for chronotherapeutics warrant further study.  
  Address (down) Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, usa. jaevans@ucsd.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:17660452 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 31  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Fonken, L.K.; Finy, M.S.; Walton, J.C.; Weil, Z.M.; Workman, J.L.; Ross, J.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Influence of light at night on murine anxiety- and depressive-like responses Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Behavioural Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Behav Brain Res  
  Volume 205 Issue 2 Pages 349-354  
  Keywords Human Health; Animals; Anxiety/*physiopathology; Corticosterone/blood; Depression/*physiopathology; Dietary Sucrose/administration & dosage; Drinking Behavior/physiology; Light/*adverse effects; Lighting; Locomotion/physiology; Male; Maze Learning; Mice; Neuropsychological Tests; Organ Size; Photic Stimulation; *Photoperiod; Random Allocation; Swimming; Testis/pathology  
  Abstract Individuals are increasingly exposed to light at night. Exposure to constant light (LL) disrupts circadian rhythms of locomotor activity, body temperature, hormones, and the sleep-wake cycle in animals. Other behavioural responses to LL have been reported, but are inconsistent. The present experiment sought to determine whether LL produces changes in affective responses and whether behavioural changes are mediated by alterations in glucocorticoid concentrations. Relative to conspecifics maintained in a light/dark cycle (LD, 16:8 light/dark), male Swiss-Webster mice exposed to LL for three weeks increased depressive-like behavioural responses as evaluated by the forced swim test and sucrose anhedonia. Furthermore, providing a light escape tube reversed the effects of LL in the forced swim test. LL mice displayed reduced anxiety as evaluated by the open field and elevated-plus maze. Glucocorticoid concentrations were reduced in the LL group suggesting that the affective behavioural responses to LL are not the result of elevated corticosterone. Additionally, mice housed in LD with a clear tube displayed increased paired testes mass as compared to LL mice. Taken together, these data provide evidence that exposure to unnatural lighting can induce significant changes in affect, increasing depressive-like and decreasing anxiety-like responses.  
  Address (down) Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Fonken.1@osu.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0166-4328 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:19591880 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 749  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Green, J.; Perkins, C.; Steinbach, R.; Edwards, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Reduced street lighting at night and health: A rapid appraisal of public views in England and Wales Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Health & Place Abbreviated Journal Health Place  
  Volume 34 Issue Pages 171-180  
  Keywords Society; Psychology; Lighting; Darkness  
  Abstract Financial and carbon reduction incentives have prompted many local authorities to reduce street lighting at night. Debate on the public health implications has centred on road accidents, fear of crime and putative health gains from reduced exposure to artificial light. However, little is known about public views of the relationship between reduced street lighting and health. We undertook a rapid appraisal in eight areas of England and Wales using ethnographic data, a household survey and documentary sources. Public concern focused on road safety, fear of crime, mobility and seeing the night sky but, for the majority in areas with interventions, reductions went unnoticed. However, more private concerns tapped into deep-seated anxieties about darkness, modernity 'going backwards', and local governance. Pathways linking lighting reductions and health are mediated by place, expectations of how localities should be lit, and trust in local authorities to act in the best interests of local communities.  
  Address (down) Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1353-8292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26057894 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1187  
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