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Author S Fotios, HF Castleton url  doi
openurl 
  Title Lighting for cycling in the UK—A review Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 49 Issue 3 Pages 381-395  
  Keywords Lighting; Planning; Public Safety  
  Abstract While UK governments have recently sought to increase cycling activity, it remains a minority interest. One reason for this is the perceived danger of cycling on roads filled with traffic. There is statistical evidence to support this perception; for equal exposure, cyclists are more likely to be seriously injured than either drivers or pedestrians. Lighting has a role to play in reducing the hazards of cycling by enhancing the visibility and conspicuity of cyclists. Unfortunately, it is not at all clear that the current lighting regulations and recommendations for cycling and cyclists are the best that can be achieved or are even adequate for these purposes. A number of actions are suggested that should enable lighting’s contribution to the safety of cyclists to be realized.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1766  
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Author Fotios, S., Price, T url  openurl
  Title Road lighting and accidents: Why lighting is not the only answer Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Lighting Journal Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 82 Issue 5 Pages 22-26  
  Keywords Lighting; Public Safety  
  Abstract Tony Price and Steve Fotios point out that while road lighting can be a significant counter measure to accidents, and that higher levels might help, the presence of road lighting does not guarantee all accidents will be avoided.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1767  
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Author J Uttley,, S Fotios, C Cheal url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effect of illuminance and spectrum on peripheral obstacle detection by pedestrians Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 49 Issue 2 Pages 211-227  
  Keywords Public Safety; Lighting  
  Abstract Obstacle detection is an important visual task for pedestrians. An experiment was carried out to measure the ability to detect peripheral obstacles under variations of illuminance and scotopic/photopic luminance ratio and with older and younger test participants. The LED array used in this work enabled scotopic/photopic ratio to be varied whilst chromaticity was held constant. The tests employed a full-scale model with dynamic fixation and walking to better simulate pedestrian experience than in past work. Detection performance increased with illuminance, reaching a plateau at 2.0 lux. A higher scotopic/photopic ratio improved obstacle detection but only at the lowest illuminance used in this study (0.2 lux). Older participants showed poorer obstacle detection performance than younger participants but again only at the lowest illuminance.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1768  
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Author S Fotios, C Cheal, S Fox, url  doi
openurl 
  Title The transition between lit and unlit sections of road and detection of driving hazards after dark Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 51 Issue 2 Pages 243-261  
  Keywords Vision; Public Safety; Lighting; Planning  
  Abstract An experiment to investigate peripheral detection performance during a driver’s transition between lit and unlit sections of road was undertaken. The results suggest that when a driver moves from a lit to an unlit section of road their detection performance decreases almost immediately to that expected for the conditions of the unlit section and that there is no significant change in the subsequent 20-minute period. Tests were conducted at three luminances (0.1, 1.0 and 2.0 cd/m2): while an increase from 0.1 to 1.0 cd/m2 improved detection, a further increase to 2.0 cd/m2 did not. Lighting of two S/P ratios (0.65, 1.40) was examined at 1.0 cd/m2: this did not suggest an effect on detection performance. Taken together, these results suggest that, in the current context, visual performance reached a plateau at 1.0 cd/m2.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @; GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1769  
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Author Fotios, S.; Goodman, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Proposed UK guidance for lighting in residential roads Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology  
  Volume 44 Issue 1 Pages 69-83  
  Keywords Lighting; Vision; Planning  
  Abstract This paper reports a proposed new system for specifying illuminances and lamp types for equal visual effects at mesopic illuminances, developed within the mesopic lighting panel of the Institution of Lighting Professionals in the UK. This study is applied in residential streets and thus the visual tasks considered are those relevant for pedestrians. It is proposed that the benchmark lamp for residential streets in the UK is the low-pressure sodium lamp; if other types of lamps are used, and these have a CIE General Colour Rendering Index of Ra ≥ 60, then the average illuminance can be reduced by an amount that is determined using the new CIE system for mesopic photometry and is dependent on the scotopic/photopic ratio of the lamp.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1776  
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