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Author Mills, E.; Tracy, J.L.; Alstone, P.; Jacobson, A.; Avato, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Low-cost LED flashlights and market spoiling in Kenya's off-grid lighting market Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Energy Efficiency Abbreviated Journal Energy Efficiency  
  Volume 8 Issue 2 Pages 323-337  
  Keywords Lighting; Regulation  
  Abstract Market spoiling stemming from information asymmetry has slowed the adoption grid-independent technologies that replace fuel-based lighting in the developing world. End users typically first experience lighting technology innovations via flashlights. The rapid emergence of inexpensive LED flashlights is a potentially good advancement in this regard, as LED lighting can be longer-lived, have higher initial light output, and be more energy-efficient than incandescent. However, our laboratory tests and end user interviews indicate that these products often fall far short of advertised performance levels and typically fail after a few months of use. Our study of purchasing decisions by 23 Kenyan market traders given an opportunity to purchase warrantied LED lamps found that prior experience with inexpensive LED flashlights significantly reduced their probability of purchasing (p = 0.0028). As additional evidence of consumer skepticism, in a large statistical survey, we also find that willingness to pay increases significantly once an LED lighting product is directly handled and tested by the end user. If LED lighting is to achieve its potential as a superior substitute for fuel-based lighting, effective policy measures are needed to remove the information asymmetry between expected and actual performance. One such measure, independent testing and certification, has measurably increased the quality of products available in the off-grid lighting marketplace.  
  Address (up)  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1570-646X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1778  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Fotios, S.; Gibbons, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Road lighting research for drivers and pedestrians: The basis of luminance and illuminance recommendations Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology  
  Volume 50 Issue 1 Pages 154-186  
  Keywords Security; Public Safety; Lighting; Review  
  Abstract This article discusses quantitative recommendations for road lighting as given in guidelines and standards, primarily, the amount of light. The discussion is framed according to the type of road user, the driver and the pedestrian, these being the user groups associated with major and minor roads, respectively. Presented first is a brief history of road lighting standards, from early to current versions, and, where known, the basis of these standards. Recommendations for the amount of light do not appear to be well-founded in robust empirical evidence, or at least do not tend to reveal the nature of any evidence. This suggests a need to reconsider recommended light levels, a need reinforced by recent developments in the science and technology of lighting and of lighting research. To enable improved recommendations, there is a need for further evidence of the effects of changes in lighting: This article therefore discusses the findings of investigations, which might be considered when developing new standards.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1790  
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Author Egri, Á.; Száz, D.; Farkas, A.; Pereszlényi, Á; Horváth, G.; Kriska, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Method to improve the survival of night-swarming mayflies near bridges in areas of distracting light pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal R. Soc. open sci.  
  Volume 4 Issue 11 Pages 171166  
  Keywords Animals; Lighting  
  Abstract Numerous negative ecological effects of urban lighting have been identified during the last decades. In spite of the development of lighting technologies, the detrimental effect of this form of light pollution has not declined. Several insect species are affected including the night-swarming mayfly Ephoron virgo: when encountering bridges during their mass swarming, these mayflies often fall victim to artificial lighting. We show a simple method for the conservation of these mayflies exploiting their positive phototaxis. With downstream-facing light-emitting diode beacon lights above two tributaries of the river Danube, we managed to guide egg-laying females to the water and prevent them from perishing outside the river near urban lights. By means of measuring the mayfly outflow from the river as a function of time and the on/off state of the beacons, we showed that the number of mayflies exiting the river's area was practically zero when our beacons were operating. Tributaries could be the sources of mayfly recolonization in case of water quality degradation of large rivers. The protection of mayfly populations in small rivers and safeguarding their aggregation and oviposition sites is therefore important.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2054-5703 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1786  
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Author Rice Kinder Institute for Urban Research url  openurl
  Title What Happens in the Shadows: Streetlights and How They Relate To Crime Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Crime; Lighting  
  Abstract After finding in a previous report, “Streetlights in the City: Understanding the Distribution of Houston Streetlights,” that the city of Houston’s more than 173,000 streetlights were not evenly distributed throughout the city, this next report answers the question: do places with more streetlights have lower crime rates?

The findings complicate the common perception that more streetlights lead to fewer crimes. While there was some evidence that a particularly high density of streetlights can provide protective benefits, excluding those extremes provides a much muddier picture, suggesting that crime is a reflection of other neighborhood contexts. As such, cities should be cautious in expecting direct reductions in crime with the introduction of more streetlights.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1804  
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Author Ngarambe, Jack; Kim, Gon url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sustainable Lighting Policies: The Contribution of Advertisement and Decorative Lighting to Local Light Pollution in Seoul, South Korea Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability  
  Volume 10 Issue 4 Pages 1007  
  Keywords Lighting; Regulation  
  Abstract We carried out field measurements to determine the contribution of advertisement and decorative lighting to local light pollution in Seoul. We used the lighting limits set by the “Light Pollution Prevention Act”, which regulates light pollution, as measuring criteria. Our results show that both advertisement and decorative lighting are significant contributors to local light pollution in Seoul. Thirty percent of advertisement lighting measured in our study areas exceeded the legal limits. Moreover, we found that certain types of advertisement lighting are more likely to cause light pollution than the others. In addition, 73% of the decorative lighting found in our sample areas exceeded the legal limits. Based on our findings, we suggest that local light pollution policies establish a curfew time when all advertisement and decorative lighting must be completely turned off. Such an approach is essential in reducing lighting levels in outdoor environments. Furthermore, it lessens the burden on law enforcement personnel, who otherwise must ensure that advertisement and decorative lighting levels are kept within the legal limits. In light of the ongoing debate over the role of lighting in public well-being and the sustainability of cities, the present study provides a discussion on the status and management policy of light pollution caused by advertisement and decorative lighting.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1829  
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