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Author (up) Arnold, G.; Mellinger, D.; Markowitz, P.; Burke, M.; Lahar, D.
Title A Win-Win-Win for Municipal Street Lighting: Converting Two-Thirds of Vermont's Street Lights to LED by 2014. Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Lighting Systems
Abstract Reducing energy costs and enhancing the nighttime environment with LED street lighting

is by now well understood. However, few municipalities and utilities have successfully taken

advantage of this opportunity to convert their street lighting operations to LEDs. Before a

system-wide conversion of existing street lights can occur, a utility must obtain the large amount

of required capital, identify appropriate LED street light equipment for their applications,

consider changes in utility rate structures, and design effective methods for recovering costs.

Using Vermont as a case study, this paper presents a partnership model among the statewide

energy efficiency utility, the state’s largest electric utilities, and several municipalities. The

model was designed to overcome the challenges to widespread LED street light conversion. By

2014, more than two-thirds of Vermont’s municipal street lights will be upgraded to LED

technology. The conversion will: (1) provide municipalities with better nighttime street lighting

and significant cost savings—at no additional capital expense to the municipalities, (2) deliver

8,000 MWh of cost-effective new savings to the energy efficiency utility, and (3) deliver

financially attractive returns for Vermont’s utilities. This win-win-win model is scalable and

replicable, and is now being considered in Massachusetts and Rhode Island
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 446
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Author (up) Assum, T.; Bjørnskau, T.; Fosser, S.; Sagberg, F.
Title Risk compensation--the case of road lighting Type Journal Article
Year 1999 Publication Accident Analysis & Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accident Analysis & Prevention
Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 545-553
Keywords Lighting
Abstract The hypothesis of this article is that drivers will not adjust their behavior, i.e. drivers are not expected to increase their speed, reduce their concentration or travel more when road lighting is installed. The hypothesis was based on previous research showing that road lighting reduces road accidents and that average driving speeds do not increase when road lighting is installed. Our results show that drivers do compensate for road lighting in terms of increased speed and reduced concentration. Consequently, the hypothesis is rejected. This means that road lighting could have a somewhat larger accident-reducing effect, if compensation could be avoided. The fact that previous research has found no change in average speed when road lighting is introduced, seems to be explained by increased driving speeds by some drivers being counterbalanced by a larger proportion of more slowly driving groups of drivers (elderly people and women), i.e. different subgroups of road users compensate in different ways.
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ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 625
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Author (up) Aubé, M.; Roby, J.; Kocifaj, M.
Title Evaluating potential spectral impacts of various artificial lights on melatonin suppression, photosynthesis, and star visibility Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 8 Issue 7 Pages e67798
Keywords Humans; *Light; Lighting/methods; Melatonin/*metabolism; Photosynthesis/*radiation effects; Plant Development/radiation effects; blue light; circadian disruption
Abstract Artificial light at night can be harmful to the environment, and interferes with fauna and flora, star visibility, and human health. To estimate the relative impact of a lighting device, its radiant power, angular photometry and detailed spectral power distribution have to be considered. In this paper we focus on the spectral power distribution. While specific spectral characteristics can be considered harmful during the night, they can be considered advantageous during the day. As an example, while blue-rich Metal Halide lamps can be problematic for human health, star visibility and vegetation photosynthesis during the night, they can be highly appropriate during the day for plant growth and light therapy. In this paper we propose three new indices to characterize lamp spectra. These indices have been designed to allow a quick estimation of the potential impact of a lamp spectrum on melatonin suppression, photosynthesis, and star visibility. We used these new indices to compare various lighting technologies objectively. We also considered the transformation of such indices according to the propagation of light into the atmosphere as a function of distance to the observer. Among other results, we found that low pressure sodium, phosphor-converted amber light emitting diodes (LED) and LED 2700 K lamps filtered with the new Ledtech's Equilib filter showed a lower or equivalent potential impact on melatonin suppression and star visibility in comparison to high pressure sodium lamps. Low pressure sodium, LED 5000 K-filtered and LED 2700 K-filtered lamps had a lower impact on photosynthesis than did high pressure sodium lamps. Finally, we propose these indices as new standards for the lighting industry to be used in characterizing their lighting technologies. We hope that their use will favor the design of new environmentally and health-friendly lighting technologies.
Address Departement de physique, Cegep de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada. martin.aube@cegepsherbrooke.qc.ca
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23861808; PMCID:PMC3702543 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 282
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Author (up) Ayuga, C.E.T.; Zamorano, J.
Title LICA AstroCalc, a software to analyze the impact of artificial light: Extracting parameters from the spectra of street and indoor lamps Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 214 Issue Pages 33-38
Keywords Vision; Lighting; Instrumentation
Abstract The night sky spectra of light-polluted areas is the result of the artificial light scattered back from the atmosphere and the reemission of the light after reflections in painted surfaces. This emission comes mainly from street and decorative lamps. We have built an extensive database of lamps spectra covering from UV to near IR and the software needed to analyze them. We describe the LICA-AstroCalc free software that is a user friendly GUI tool to extract information from our database spectra or any other user provided spectrum. The software also includes the complete color database of paints from NCS comprising 1950 types. This helps to evaluate how different colors modify the reflected spectra from different lamps. All spectroscopic measurements have been validated with recommendations from CIELAB and ISO from NCS database.
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ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1882
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Author (up) Azam, C.; Kerbiriou, C.; Vernet, A.; Julien, J.-F.; Bas, Y.; Plichard, L.; Maratrat, J.; Le Viol, I.
Title Is part-night lighting an effective measure to limit the impacts of artificial lighting on bats? Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords animals; conservation; lighting
Abstract As light pollution is currently considered to be a major threat to biodiversity, different lighting management options are being explored to mitigate the impact of artificial lighting on wildlife. Although part-night lighting schemes have been adopted by many local authorities across Europe to reduce the carbon footprint and save energy, their effects on biodiversity are unknown. Through a paired, in situ experiment, we compared the activity levels of 8 bat species under unlit, part-night and full-night lighting treatments in a rural area located 60 km south of Paris, France. We selected 36 study locations composed of 1 lit site and a paired unlit control site; 24 of these sites were located in areas subject to part-night lighting schemes, and 12 sites were in areas under standard, full-night lighting. There was significantly more activity on part-night lighting sites compared to full-night lighting sites for the late-emerging, light-sensitive Plecotus spp., and a similar pattern was observable for Myotis spp., although not significant. In contrast, part-night lighting did not influence the activity of early emerging bat species around streetlights, except for Pipistrellus pipistrellus for which there was significantly less activity on part-night lighting sites than on full-night lighting sites. Overall, no significant difference in activity between part- and full- night lighting sites were observed in 5 of the 8 species studied, suggesting that current part-night lighting schemes fail to encompass the range of activity of most bat species. We recommend that such schemes start earlier at night to effectively mitigate the adverse effects of artificial lighting on light-sensitive species, particularly along ecological corridors that are especially important to the persistence of biodiversity in urban landscapes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address National Museum of Natural History, Center for Ecology and Conservation Science, UMR7204-MNHN-CNRS-UPMC, 55 rue Buffon, 75005, Paris, France
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:26179558 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1207
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