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Author Gaston, K.J.; Holt, L.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Nature, extent and ecological implications of night‐time light from road vehicles Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 55 Issue 5 Pages 2296-2307  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology; Lighting; Review  
  Abstract The erosion of night‐time by the introduction of artificial lighting constitutes a profound pressure on the natural environment. It has altered what had for millennia been reliable signals from natural light cycles used for regulating a host of biological processes, with impacts ranging from changes in gene expression to ecosystem processes.

Studies of these impacts have focused almost exclusively on those resulting from stationary sources of light emissions, and particularly streetlights. However, mobile sources, especially road vehicle headlights, contribute substantial additional emissions.

The ecological impacts of light emissions from vehicle headlights are likely to be especially high because these are (1) focused so as to light roadsides at higher intensities than commonly experienced from other sources, and well above activation thresholds for many biological processes; (2) projected largely in a horizontal plane and thus can carry over long distances; (3) introduced into much larger areas of the landscape than experience street lighting; (4) typically broad “white” spectrum, which substantially overlaps the action spectra of many biological processes and (5) often experienced at roadsides as series of pulses of light (produced by passage of vehicles), a dynamic known to have major biological impacts.

The ecological impacts of road vehicle headlights will markedly increase with projected global growth in numbers of vehicles and the road network, increasing the local severity of emissions (because vehicle numbers are increasing faster than growth in the road network) and introducing emissions into areas from which they were previously absent. The effects will be further exacerbated by technological developments that are increasing the intensity of headlight emissions and the amounts of blue light in emission spectra.

Synthesis and applications. Emissions from vehicle headlights need to be considered as a major, and growing, source of ecological impacts of artificial night‐time lighting. It will be a significant challenge to minimise these impacts whilst balancing drivers' needs at night and avoiding risk and discomfort for other road users. Nonetheless, there is potential to identify solutions to these conflicts, both through the design of headlights and that of roads.
 
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  Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1841  
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Author Gago-Calderón, A.; Hermoso-Orzáez, M.; De Andres-Diaz, J.; Redrado-Salvatierra, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Evaluation of Uniformity and Glare Improvement with Low Energy Efficiency Losses in Street Lighting LED Luminaires Using Laser-Sintered Polyamide-Based Diffuse Covers Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Energies Abbreviated Journal Energies  
  Volume 11 Issue 4 Pages 816  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract Energy saving in street lighting is garnering more interest and has become a priority in municipal management. Therefore, LED luminaires are gradually becoming prevalent in our cities. Beyond their energy/economic saving potential, quality in public lighting installations concerns aspects such as uniformity and glare which must be maintained if not improved in any installation renewal project using this technology. The high light intensity generated in a discrete point in LED packages and its directional nature result in significant deficiencies in these last two parameters. To soften these effects, translucent covers are being used as one of the most common solutions with the drawback of significant light intensity losses. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the behavior of LED luminaire’s polyamide-based optical covers manufactured with a laser-sintered process. These are designed to improve glare and uniformity output, to minimize light output reductions, and to be industrially manufactured with no increment of cost for their lighting equipment compared to conventional transparent polycarbonate solutions. A laboratory and field lighting test study has been applied to different covers with the same LED lamp and luminaire to compare the performance of three different solutions built with different polymeric materials and with different light transmission surface textures. The photometric results have been observed and discussed to demonstrate the ability to significantly improve the lighting performance of LED luminaires—illuminance and uniformity levels and discomfort and disability glare indexes— using an improved optic cover.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1996-1073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1844  
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Author Shlayan, N.; Challapali, K.; Cavalcanti, D.; Oliveira, T.; Yang, Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A Novel Illuminance Control Strategy for Roadway Lighting Based on Greenshields Macroscopic Traffic Model Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication IEEE Photonics Journal Abbreviated Journal IEEE Photonics J.  
  Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 1-11  
  Keywords Lighting; Planning; Economics  
  Abstract Most street lights currently deployed have constant illumination levels or vary

based on a predetermined schedule. However, with advances in lighting controls, intelligent transportation systems, and the efforts of transportation agencies at regional and national levels to better sustain and manage the transportation system by monitoring the roadway network, many different types of real-time traffic data are available; which enables the implementation of a traffic responsive outdoor light system. The International Commission on Illumination (CIE) has proposed a class-based lighting control model based on a number of roadway parameters, some of which are traffic related. However, the adaptation of the available traffic data to the existing model is not obvious. In addition, the CIE model can be improved to better reflect traffic characteristics to increase energy efficiency of the overall street lighting system. The intention of this research is to quantify the relationship between real-time traffic, and roadway lighting and to develop a control strategy based on real-time traffic data in order to reduce light energy consumption, enhance safety, and maximize throughput of the roadway. Significant energy savings were observed when the proposed control strategy was implemented in two case studies using available lighting and traffic data for Washington, DC, and Montgomery County, MD, representing urban and rural roadway networks, respectively.
 
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  ISSN 1943-0655 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1850  
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Author Preciado, O.; Manzano, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Spectral characteristics of road surfaces and eye transmittance: Effects on energy efficiency of road lighting at mesopic levels Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology  
  Volume Issue Pages 147715351771822  
  Keywords Vision; Lighting  
  Abstract In 2010, the CIE published a recommended system for mesopic photometry based on visual performance. According to this system, scenes illuminated at mesopic levels with light sources of high S/P ratio, will produce better visual performance than those illuminated with light sources of a lower S/P ratio at equal photopic luminance. However, there could be other factors affected by SPD that, when quantified, could lead to a contradictory final effect. The scope of this paper was to evaluate how road lighting is affected by the spectral road surface reflectance and by the human eye transmittance as people get older. Our results suggest that the benefits of considering the mesopic vision effect for light sources with high S/P ratios are totally counteracted by the other two effects at mesopic luminances between 0.75 cd/m2 and 1.73 cd/m2 for people between 20 and 60 years of age, depending on the light source and the age of observers.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1862  
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Author Ayuga, C.E.T.; Zamorano, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title LICA AstroCalc, a software to analyze the impact of artificial light: Extracting parameters from the spectra of street and indoor lamps Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 214 Issue Pages 33-38  
  Keywords Vision; Lighting; Instrumentation  
  Abstract The night sky spectra of light-polluted areas is the result of the artificial light scattered back from the atmosphere and the reemission of the light after reflections in painted surfaces. This emission comes mainly from street and decorative lamps. We have built an extensive database of lamps spectra covering from UV to near IR and the software needed to analyze them. We describe the LICA-AstroCalc free software that is a user friendly GUI tool to extract information from our database spectra or any other user provided spectrum. The software also includes the complete color database of paints from NCS comprising 1950 types. This helps to evaluate how different colors modify the reflected spectra from different lamps. All spectroscopic measurements have been validated with recommendations from CIELAB and ISO from NCS database.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1882  
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