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Author Lerchl, A.; Schindler, C.; Eichhorn, K.; Kley, F.; Erren, T.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Indirect blue light does not suppress nocturnal salivary melatonin in humans in an automobile setting Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Journal of Pineal Research Abbreviated Journal J Pineal Res  
  Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 143-146  
  Keywords Human Health; Adolescent; Adult; *Automobiles; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Humans; *Lighting; Male; Melatonin/metabolism/*secretion; Salivary Glands/*secretion; Statistics, Nonparametric  
  Abstract In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified shift work that involves circadian disruption as being probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A). In this context, light exposure during the night plays a key role because it can suppress nocturnal melatonin levels when exposures exceed a certain threshold. Blue light around 464 nm is most effective in suppressing melatonin because of the spectral sensitivity of melanopsin, a recently discovered photopigment in retinal ganglion cells; the axons of these cells project to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, a circadian master clock in the brain. Due to advances in light technologies, normal tungsten light bulbs are being replaced by light-emitting diodes which produce quasi-monochromatic or white light. The objective of this study was to assess whether the light-melanopsin-melatonin axis might be affected in automobiles at night which employ the new generation diodes. To this end, we have tested in an experimental automobile setting whether indirect blue light (lambda(max) = 465 nm) at an intensity of 0.22 or 1.25 lx can suppress salivary melatonin levels in 12 male volunteers (age range 17-27 years) who served as their own controls. Daytime levels were low (2.7 +/- 0.5 pg/mL), and night-time levels without light exposure were high (14.5 +/- 1.1 pg/mL), as expected. Low-intensity light exposures had no significant effect on melatonin levels (0.22 lx: 17.2 +/- 2.8 pg/mL; P > 0.05; 1.25 lx: 12.6 +/- 2.0 pg/mL; P > 0.05). It is concluded that indirect blue light exposures in automobiles up to 1.25 lx do not cause unintentional chronodisruption via melatonin suppression.  
  Address School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University, D-28759 Bremen, Germany. a.lerchl@jacobs-university.de  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0742-3098 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:19555449 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 777  
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Author Owen, D. url  openurl
  Title The Dark Side. Making war on light pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication The New Yorker Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor (up)  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 791  
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Author Pauley, S.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Lighting for the human circadian clock: recent research indicates that lighting has become a public health issue Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Medical Hypotheses Abbreviated Journal Med Hypotheses  
  Volume 63 Issue 4 Pages 588-596  
  Keywords Human Health; Chronobiology Disorders/*complications/*physiopathology; Circadian Rhythm/*radiation effects; Clinical Trials as Topic; Environmental Exposure/adverse effects; Evidence-Based Medicine; Humans; Light; Lighting/*adverse effects/methods; Melatonin/metabolism; *Models, Biological; Neoplasms/*etiology/*physiopathology; Occupational Diseases/etiology/physiopathology; Public Health/methods/trends; Risk Assessment/methods; Risk Factors  
  Abstract The hypothesis that the suppression of melatonin (MLT) by exposure to light at night (LAN) may be one reason for the higher rates of breast and colorectal cancers in the developed world deserves more attention. The literature supports raising this subject for awareness as a growing public health issue. Evidence now exists that indirectly links exposures to LAN to human breast and colorectal cancers in shift workers. The hypothesis begs an even larger question: has medical science overlooked the suppression of MLT by LAN as a contributor to the overall incidence of cancer? The indirect linkage of breast cancer to LAN is further supported by laboratory rat experiments by David E. Blask and colleagues. Experiments involved the implanting of human MCF-7 breast cancer cell xenografts into the groins of rats and measurements were made of cancer cell growth rates, the uptake of linoleic acid (LA), and MLT levels. One group of implanted rats were placed in light-dark (12L:12D) and a second group in light-light (12L:12L) environments. Constant light suppressed MLT, increased cancer cell growth rates, and increased LA uptake into cancer cells. The opposite was seen in the light-dark group. The proposed mechanism is the suppression of nocturnal MLT by exposure to LAN and subsequent lack of protection by MLT on cancer cell receptor sites which allows the uptake of LA which in turn enhances the growth of cancer cells. MLT is a protective, oncostatic hormone and strong antioxidant having evolved in all plants and animals over the millennia. In vertebrates, MLT is normally produced by the pineal gland during the early morning hours of darkness, even in nocturnal animals, and is suppressed by exposure to LAN. Daily entrainment of the human circadian clock is important for good human health. These studies suggest that the proper use and color of indoor and outdoor lighting is important to the health of both humans and ecosystems. Lighting fixtures should be designed to minimize interference with normal circadian rhythms in plants and animals. New discoveries on blue-light-sensitive retinal ganglion cell light receptors that control the circadian clock and how those receptors relate to today's modern high intensity discharge (HID) lamps are discussed. There is a brief discussion of circadian rhythms and light pollution. With the precautionary principle in mind, practical suggestions are offered for better indoor and outdoor lighting practices designed to safeguard human health.  
  Address spauley@cox-internet.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0306-9877 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:15325001 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 792  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Spivey, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light at night and breast cancer risk worldwide Type
  Year 2010 Publication Environmental Health Perspectives Abbreviated Journal Environ Health Perspect  
  Volume 118 Issue 12 Pages a525  
  Keywords Human Health; Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology/*etiology/prevention & control; Female; Humans; Lighting/*adverse effects; Male; Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology/*etiology/prevention & control; Risk Factors  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor (up)  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0091-6765 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21123149; PMCID:PMC3002207 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 813  
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Author Srinivasan, V.; Spence, D.W.; Pandi-Perumal, S.R.; Trakht, I.; Esquifino, A.I.; Cardinali, D.P.; Maestroni, G.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Melatonin, environmental light, and breast cancer Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Breast Cancer Research and Treatment Abbreviated Journal Breast Cancer Res Treat  
  Volume 108 Issue 3 Pages 339-350  
  Keywords Human Health; Breast Neoplasms/*etiology/*physiopathology; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Female; Humans; Light; Lighting/*adverse effects; Melatonin/*physiology; Occupational Exposure/adverse effects  
  Abstract Although many factors have been suggested as causes for breast cancer, the increased incidence of the disease seen in women working in night shifts led to the hypothesis that the suppression of melatonin by light or melatonin deficiency plays a major role in cancer development. Studies on the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea experimental models of human breast cancer indicate that melatonin is effective in reducing cancer development. In vitro studies in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line have shown that melatonin exerts its anticarcinogenic actions through a variety of mechanisms, and that it is most effective in estrogen receptor (ER) alpha-positive breast cancer cells. Melatonin suppresses ER gene, modulates several estrogen dependent regulatory proteins and pro-oncogenes, inhibits cell proliferation, and impairs the metastatic capacity of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The anticarcinogenic action on MCF-7 cells has been demonstrated at the physiological concentrations of melatonin attained at night, suggesting thereby that melatonin acts like an endogenous antiestrogen. Melatonin also decreases the formation of estrogens from androgens via aromatase inhibition. Circulating melatonin levels are abnormally low in ER-positive breast cancer patients thereby supporting the melatonin hypothesis for breast cancer in shift working women. It has been postulated that enhanced endogenous melatonin secretion is responsible for the beneficial effects of meditation as a form of psychosocial intervention that helps breast cancer patients.  
  Address Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor (up)  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0167-6806 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:17541739 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 815  
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