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Author Falchi, F.; Cinzano, P.; Elvidge, C.D.; Keith, D.M.; Haim, A.
Title Limiting the impact of light pollution on human health, environment and stellar visibility Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Journal of Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal J Environ Manage
Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages (down) 2714-2722
Keywords Animals; Animals, Wild; Conservation of Natural Resources; Environment; *Environmental Pollution; Eye; *Health; Humans; Lighting/*adverse effects/standards; Melatonin/*antagonists & inhibitors; Sodium; Vision, Ocular/*physiology; Visual Perception
Abstract Light pollution is one of the most rapidly increasing types of environmental degradation. Its levels have been growing exponentially over the natural nocturnal lighting levels provided by starlight and moonlight. To limit this pollution several effective practices have been defined: the use of shielding on lighting fixture to prevent direct upward light, particularly at low angles above the horizon; no over lighting, i.e. avoid using higher lighting levels than strictly needed for the task, constraining illumination to the area where it is needed and the time it will be used. Nevertheless, even after the best control of the light distribution is reached and when the proper quantity of light is used, some upward light emission remains, due to reflections from the lit surfaces and atmospheric scatter. The environmental impact of this “residual light pollution”, cannot be neglected and should be limited too. Here we propose a new way to limit the effects of this residual light pollution on wildlife, human health and stellar visibility. We performed analysis of the spectra of common types of lamps for external use, including the new LEDs. We evaluated their emissions relative to the spectral response functions of human eye photoreceptors, in the photopic, scotopic and the 'meltopic' melatonin suppressing bands. We found that the amount of pollution is strongly dependent on the spectral characteristics of the lamps, with the more environmentally friendly lamps being low pressure sodium, followed by high pressure sodium. Most polluting are the lamps with a strong blue emission, like Metal Halide and white LEDs. Migration from the now widely used sodium lamps to white lamps (MH and LEDs) would produce an increase of pollution in the scotopic and melatonin suppression bands of more than five times the present levels, supposing the same photopic installed flux. This increase will exacerbate known and possible unknown effects of light pollution on human health, environment and on visual perception of the Universe by humans. We present quantitative criteria to evaluate the lamps based on their spectral emissions and we suggest regulatory limits for future lighting.
Address Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologia dell'Inquinamento Luminoso, Via Roma 13, I-36106 Thiene, Italy. falchi@lightpollution.it
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0301-4797 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:21745709 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 131
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Author Gaston, K.J.; Holt, L.A.
Title Nature, extent and ecological implications of night‐time light from road vehicles Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 55 Issue 5 Pages (down) 2296-2307
Keywords Animals; Ecology; Lighting; Review
Abstract The erosion of night‐time by the introduction of artificial lighting constitutes a profound pressure on the natural environment. It has altered what had for millennia been reliable signals from natural light cycles used for regulating a host of biological processes, with impacts ranging from changes in gene expression to ecosystem processes.

Studies of these impacts have focused almost exclusively on those resulting from stationary sources of light emissions, and particularly streetlights. However, mobile sources, especially road vehicle headlights, contribute substantial additional emissions.

The ecological impacts of light emissions from vehicle headlights are likely to be especially high because these are (1) focused so as to light roadsides at higher intensities than commonly experienced from other sources, and well above activation thresholds for many biological processes; (2) projected largely in a horizontal plane and thus can carry over long distances; (3) introduced into much larger areas of the landscape than experience street lighting; (4) typically broad “white” spectrum, which substantially overlaps the action spectra of many biological processes and (5) often experienced at roadsides as series of pulses of light (produced by passage of vehicles), a dynamic known to have major biological impacts.

The ecological impacts of road vehicle headlights will markedly increase with projected global growth in numbers of vehicles and the road network, increasing the local severity of emissions (because vehicle numbers are increasing faster than growth in the road network) and introducing emissions into areas from which they were previously absent. The effects will be further exacerbated by technological developments that are increasing the intensity of headlight emissions and the amounts of blue light in emission spectra.

Synthesis and applications. Emissions from vehicle headlights need to be considered as a major, and growing, source of ecological impacts of artificial night‐time lighting. It will be a significant challenge to minimise these impacts whilst balancing drivers' needs at night and avoiding risk and discomfort for other road users. Nonetheless, there is potential to identify solutions to these conflicts, both through the design of headlights and that of roads.
Address
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1841
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Author Kloog, I.; Stevens, R.G.; Haim, A.; Portnov, B.A.
Title Nighttime light level co-distributes with breast cancer incidence worldwide Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Cancer Causes & Control : CCC Abbreviated Journal Cancer Causes Control
Volume 21 Issue 12 Pages (down) 2059-2068
Keywords Adult; Birth Rate; Breast Neoplasms/*epidemiology/etiology; Carcinoma/*epidemiology/etiology; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Cohort Studies; Electricity; Female; Humans; Incidence; *Light/adverse effects; Lighting; Photoperiod; Registries; Urban Population/statistics & numerical data; World Health; oncogenesis
Abstract Breast cancer incidence varies widely among countries of the world for largely unknown reasons. We investigated whether country-level light at night (LAN) is associated with incidence. We compared incidence rates of five common cancers in women (breast, lung, colorectal, larynx, and liver), observed in 164 countries of the world from the GLOBOCAN database, with population-weighted country-level LAN, and with several developmental and environmental indicators, including fertility rate, per capita income, percent of urban population, and electricity consumption. Two types of regression models were used in the analysis: Ordinary Least Squares and Spatial Errors. We found a significant positive association between population LAN level and incidence rates of breast cancer. There was no such an association between LAN level and colorectal, larynx, liver, and lung cancers. A sensitivity test, holding other variables at their average values, yielded a 30-50% higher risk of breast cancer in the highest LAN exposed countries compared to the lowest LAN exposed countries. The possibility that under-reporting from the registries in the low-resource, and also low-LAN, countries created a spurious association was evaluated in several ways and shown not to account for the results. These findings provide coherence of the previously reported case-control and cohort studies with the co-distribution of LAN and breast cancer in entire populations.
Address Department of Natural Resources & Environmental Management, University of Haifa, 31905 Mount Carmel, Haifa, Israel
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0957-5243 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:20680434 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 160
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Author Dobler, G.; Ghandehari, M.; Koonin, S.E.; Sharma, M.S.
Title A Hyperspectral Survey of New York City Lighting Technology Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) Abbreviated Journal Sensors (Basel)
Volume 16 Issue 12 Pages (down) 2047
Keywords Remote Sensing; Instrumentation; Lighting
Abstract Using side-facing observations of the New York City (NYC) skyline, we identify lighting technologies via spectral signatures measured with Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imaging. The instrument is a scanning, single slit spectrograph with 872 spectral channels from 0.4-1.0 mu m. With a single scan, we are able to clearly match the detected spectral signatures of 13 templates of known lighting types. However, many of the observed lighting spectra do not match those that have been measured in the laboratory. We identify unknown spectra by segmenting our observations and using Template-Activated Partition (TAP) clustering with a variety of underlying unsupervised clustering methods to generate the first empirically-determined spectral catalog of roughly 40 urban lighting types. We show that, given our vantage point, we are able to determine lighting technology use for both interior and exterior lighting. Finally, we find that the total brightness of our scene shows strong peaks at the 570 nm Na – II , 595 nm Na – II and 818 nm Na – I lines that are common in high pressure sodium lamps, which dominate our observations.
Address NYU Center for Urban Science and Progress, 1 MetroTech Center, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA. mohit.sharma@nyu.edu
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1424-8220 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27929391 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1567
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Author Entwistle, J.; Slater, D.
Title Making space for 'the social': connecting sociology and professional practices in urban lighting design Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication The British Journal of Sociology Abbreviated Journal Br J Sociol
Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages (down) 2020-2041
Keywords Sociology; Society; Lighting
Abstract Lighting is increasingly recognized as a significant social intervention by both lighting professionals and academic social scientists. However, what counts as 'the social' is diverse and contested, with consequences for what kind of 'social' is performed or invented. Based on a long-term research programme, we argue that collaboration between sociologists and lighting professionals requires negotiating discourses and practices of 'the social'. This paper explores the quality and kinds of spaces made for 'the social' in professional practices and academic collaborations, focusing on two case studies of urban lighting that demonstrate how the space of 'the social' is constrained and impoverished by an institutionalized division between technical and aesthetic lighting. We consider the potential role of sociologists in making more productive spaces for 'the social' in urban design, as part of the central sociological task of 'inventing the social' (Marres, Guggenheim and Wilkie 2018) in the process of studying it.
Address Department of Sociology, London School of Economics; d.slater(at)lse.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0007-1315 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30864152 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2265
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