toggle visibility Search & Display Options

Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print
  Records Links
Author John Bullough url  doi
openurl 
  Title Factors Affecting Sign Visibility, Conspicuity, and Legibility: Review and Annotated Bibliography Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Interdisciplinary Journal of Signage and Wayfinding Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 1 Issue 2 Pages 2-25  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract This paper summarizes published research studies, technical reports and codes and standards related to the visibility (i.e., conspicuity and legibility) of signage. In the summary that follows, publications are grouped and discussed according to several different topics. First, the typographic and symbolic characteristics of signs and the information they carry are described (e.g., letter size, font selection, etc.); second, photometric, colorimetric and temporal properties of signs as they affect visibility; finally, environmental considerations (e.g., daytime versus nighttime viewing, whether a sign is located in a rural or urban area, etc.) as they influence sign design are reviewed. Annotated summaries of each publication in the literature review are included at the end of this paper.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (up) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1762  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Clanton, N.; Gibbons, R.; Garcia, J.; Barber, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Seattle LED Adaptive Lighting Study Type Report
  Year 2014 Publication Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance Abbreviated Journal NEEA  
  Volume Issue E14-286 Pages  
  Keywords Public Safety; Lighting; Planning; Vision  
  Abstract The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) and the City of Seattle partnered to evaluate the future of solid state street lighting in the Pacific Northwest with a two-night demonstration in Seattle's Ballard neighborhood in March 2012. The study evaluates the effectiveness of LED streetlights on nighttime driver object detection visibility as function of light source spectral distribution (color temperature in degrees K) and light distribution. Clanton & Associates and VTTI also evaluated adaptive lighting (tuning of streetlights during periods of reduced vehicular and pedestrian activity) at three levels: one hundred percent of full light output, fifty percent of full light output, and twenty-five percent of full light output. The study, led by Clanton & Associates, Continuum Industries, and the VTTI, built upon previous visual performance studies conducted in Anchorage, Alaska; San Diego, California; and San Jose, California. The use of LED technology for city street lighting is becoming more widespread. While these lights are primarily touted for their energy efficiency, the combination of LEDs with advanced control technology, changes to lighting criteria, and a better understanding of human mesopic (low light level) visibility creates an enormous potential for energy savings and improved motorist and pedestrian visibility and safety. Data from these tests support the following statements: LED luminaires with a correlated color temperature of 4100K provide the highest detection distance, including statistically significantly better detection distance when compared to HPS luminaires of higher wattage. The non-uniformity of the lighting on the roadway surface provides a visibility enhancement and greater contrast for visibility. Contrast of objects, both positive and negative, is a better indicator of visibility than is average luminance level. Dimming the LED luminaires to fifty percent of IES RP-8 levels did not significantly reduce object detection distance in dry pavement conditions. Participants perceived dimming of sidewalks as less acceptable than dimming to the same level on the roadway. Asymmetric lighting did reduce glare and performed similarly to the symmetric lighting at the same color temperature (4100K).  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (up) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1763  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Riad Saraiji, M. Saju Oommen url  openurl
  Title Light Pollution Index (LPI): An Integrated Approach to Study Light Pollution with Street Lighting and Façade Lighting Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication The Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 9 Issue 2 Pages 127-145  
  Keywords Planning; Lighting  
  Abstract Rather than being complementary, street lighting and façade lighting are typically designed independently of each other. As a result, light from street lighting luminaires might spill onto building façades and influence characteristics of the façade lighting including required light levels and color. Conversely, façade lighting might reflect onto the street and contribute to the street illumination. This manuscript presents an integrated approach to analyzing the interaction between the street and façade lighting in consideration of light pollution control. A generic street model with various calculation grids was studied. It was found that a moderately lit façade contributes to a horizontal illuminance of 5 lux or more on the street and a vertical illuminance of 4 lux or more 1.5 m above the sidewalk. An over-illuminated street may result when both street and façade lighting exist without reference to each other. The size of the light-pollution calculation grid and the use of a 3-D illuminance graph were studied. It was found that fluctuations in the calculated amount of light pollution could occur unless the size of the pollution calculation grid is large enough to capture all of the upward flux. A method of achieving the optimal size of the calculation grid is demonstrated. Shortcomings of using light pollution percentage as a light pollution index are highlighted and an alternative light pollution index is proposed.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (up) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1764  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author S Fotios, J Uttley url  doi
openurl 
  Title Illuminance required to detect a pavement obstacle of critical size Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 50 Issue Pages 390-404  
  Keywords Vision; Lighting  
  Abstract This paper investigates the illuminance needed to detect trip hazards for pedestrians walking after dark. In previous work, it was assumed that the critical obstacle height is 25 mm: further review of accident data and foot clearance data suggests instead that 10 mm is the critical height. Eye tracking records suggest a tendency for obstacles to be detected approximately 3.4 m ahead. Interpretation of obstacle detection data suggests horizontal photopic illuminances of up to 0.9 lux are required for peripheral detection of a 10 mm obstacle 3.4 m ahead, according to the scotopic/photopic ratio of the lighting and the age of the observer.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (up) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1765  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author S Fotios, HF Castleton url  doi
openurl 
  Title Lighting for cycling in the UK—A review Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 49 Issue 3 Pages 381-395  
  Keywords Lighting; Planning; Public Safety  
  Abstract While UK governments have recently sought to increase cycling activity, it remains a minority interest. One reason for this is the perceived danger of cycling on roads filled with traffic. There is statistical evidence to support this perception; for equal exposure, cyclists are more likely to be seriously injured than either drivers or pedestrians. Lighting has a role to play in reducing the hazards of cycling by enhancing the visibility and conspicuity of cyclists. Unfortunately, it is not at all clear that the current lighting regulations and recommendations for cycling and cyclists are the best that can be achieved or are even adequate for these purposes. A number of actions are suggested that should enable lighting’s contribution to the safety of cyclists to be realized.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (up) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1766  
Permanent link to this record
Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print

Save Citations:
Export Records: