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Author Brainard, G.C.; Coyle, W.; Ayers, M.; Kemp, J.; Warfield, B.; Maida, J.; Bowen, C.; Bernecker, C.; Lockley, S.W.; Hanifin, J.P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Solid-state lighting for the International Space Station: Tests of visual performance and melatonin regulation Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Acta Astronautica Abbreviated Journal Acta Astronautica  
  Volume 92 Issue 1 Pages 21-28  
  Keywords Human Health; Lighting  
  Abstract The International Space Station (ISS) uses General Luminaire Assemblies (GLAs) that house fluorescent lamps for illuminating the astronauts' working and living environments. Solid-state light emitting diodes (LEDs) are attractive candidates for replacing the GLAs on the ISS. The advantages of LEDs over conventional fluorescent light sources include lower up-mass, power consumption and heat generation, as well as fewer toxic materials, greater resistance to damage and long lamp life. A prototype Solid-State Lighting Assembly (SSLA) was developed and successfully installed on the ISS. The broad aim of the ongoing work is to test light emitted by prototype SSLAs for supporting astronaut vision and assessing neuroendocrine, circadian, neurobehavioral and sleep effects. Three completed ground-based studies are presented here including experiments on visual performance, color discrimination, and acute plasma melatonin suppression in cohorts of healthy, human subjects under different SSLA light exposure conditions within a high-fidelity replica of the ISS Crew Quarters (CQ). All visual tests were done under indirect daylight at 201 lx, fluorescent room light at 531 lx and 4870 K SSLA light in the CQ at 1266 lx. Visual performance was assessed with numerical verification tests (NVT). NVT data show that there are no significant differences in score (F=0.73, p=0.48) or time (F=0.14, p=0.87) for subjects performing five contrast tests (10%–100%). Color discrimination was assessed with Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue tests (FM-100). The FM-100 data showed no significant differences (F=0.01, p=0.99) in color discrimination for indirect daylight, fluorescent room light and 4870 K SSLA light in the CQ. Plasma melatonin suppression data show that there are significant differences (F=29.61, p<0.0001) across the percent change scores of plasma melatonin for five corneal irradiances, ranging from 0 to 405 &#956;W/cm2 of 4870 K SSLA light in the CQ (0–1270 lx). Risk factors for the health and safety of astronauts include disturbed circadian rhythms and altered sleep–wake patterns. These studies will help determine if SSLA lighting can be used both to support astronaut vision and serve as an in-flight countermeasure for circadian desynchrony, sleep disruption and cognitive performance deficits on the ISS.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0094-5765 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1533  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Wakefield, A.; Broyles, M.; Stone, E.L.; Jones, G.; Harris, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Experimentally comparing the attractiveness of domestic lights to insects: Do LEDs attract fewer insects than conventional light types? Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol  
  Volume 6 Issue 22 Pages 8028-8036  
  Keywords ecology; Lighting  
  Abstract LED lighting is predicted to constitute 70% of the outdoor and residential lighting markets by 2020. While the use of LEDs promotes energy and cost savings relative to traditional lighting technologies, little is known about the effects these broad-spectrum “white” lights will have on wildlife, human health, animal welfare, and disease transmission. We conducted field experiments to compare the relative attractiveness of four commercially available “domestic” lights, one traditional (tungsten filament) and three modern (compact fluorescent, “cool-white” LED and “warm-white” LED), to aerial insects, particularly Diptera. We found that LEDs attracted significantly fewer insects than other light sources, but found no significant difference in attraction between the “cool-” and “warm-white” LEDs. Fewer flies were attracted to LEDs than alternate light sources, including fewer Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Use of LEDs has the potential to mitigate disturbances to wildlife and occurrences of insect-borne diseases relative to competing lighting technologies. However, we discuss the risks associated with broad-spectrum lighting and net increases in lighting resulting from reduced costs of LED technology.  
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  Language (up) Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1541  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Lin, C.-F.; Tsai, T.-Y.; Chen, K.-Y.; Shen, P.-C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Efficient warm-white lighting using rare-earth-element-free fluorescent materials for saving energy, environment protection and human health Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication RSC Adv. Abbreviated Journal RSC Adv.  
  Volume 6 Issue 113 Pages 111959-111965  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract Solid-state white light emission is important for energy saving, but currently it is mainly based on environmentally unfriendly rare-earth doped phosphors or cadmium-containing quantum dots. Here, we explore an environmentally friendly approach for efficient white light emission based on ZnSe:Mn nanoparticles without rare-earth or cadmium elements. The emission is composed of a broad green-orange spectral band (525–650 nm) with the peak located at 578 nm and the color temperature is low, so it is particularly good for lighting at night to reduce risks to human health. Furthermore, the optimal absorption peak could be designed at 453 nm, which well matches the commercial blue-LED emission wavelength (445–470 nm). A quantum yield up to 84.5% could also be achieved. This rare-earth-element-free material opens up a new avenue for energy-saving, healthy, and environmentally benign lighting.  
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  Language (up) Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2046-2069 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1566  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Schroer, S.; Hölker, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light Pollution Reduction Type Book Chapter
  Year 2014 Publication Handbook of Advanced Lighting Technology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords ligting technology; awareness; skyglow, lighting design  
  Abstract Artificial light at night is an irreplaceable technology for our society and its activities at nighttime. But this indispensable tool has detrimental side effects, which have only come to light in the past 10–20 years. This chapter reviews ways to implement technology in order to lower the impact of artificial light at night on nature and humans. Further, it provides guidelines for environmental protection and scientific approaches to reduce the increase in light pollution and discusses the urgent need for further research. Measures to prevent obtrusive light and unintentional trespass into homes and natural habitats are

mostly simple solutions like shielding luminaires and predominantly require awareness. Shades are another effective tool to reduce trespass from interior lights. Especially in greenhouses, the use of shades significantly reduces the contribution to skyglow. Artificial light should be switched off whenever it is not needed. Smart, flexible lighting systems can help to use artificial light with precision. The choice of the appropriate illumination has to be balanced by the needs for optimal visibility, human well-being, environmental conservation and protection of the night sky. For visibility, conditions comparable to bright moonlit nights (0.3 lx) are sufficient. Low-level streetlights that produce only 1–3 lx at the surface meet the requirement of facial cognition. Although this light level might be too low for road safety, a consideration of maximum illumination levels in street lighting is recommended. The spectral power distribution of illuminants can impact several environmental parameters. For example, illuminants emitting short wavelengths can sup- press melatonin in higher vertebrates (including humans), are attracting many insect species, and contribute in skyglow above average. Recent findings in different measures for energy efficiency of illuminants at scotopic or mesopic vision conditions compared to photopic conditions indicate that the assessment of lighting products needs fundamental revision. Further research is crucially needed to create refuges for light-sensitive species at night, to measure the impact of artificial light on nature, and also to monitor the improvements of light pollution-reducing measures. Decrees in various regions have helped to lower the impact of artificial light at night significantly. Measures to reduce the impact of artificial light at night need to be carefully balanced with the surrounding environment. Thoughtful guidelines are crucial to reducing the rapid increase in sky brightness worldwide. These guidelines need to be made accessible for decision makers especially in areas which require new light installations.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer International Publishing Place of Publication Editor Karlicek, Robert Sun, Ching-Chern Zissis, Georgis Ma, Ruiqing  
  Language (up) Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1569  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Hölker, Andreas; Doulos, Lambros; Schroer, Sibylle; Topalis, Frangiskos url  openurl
  Title Sustainable outdoor lighting for reducing energy and light waste Type Conference Article
  Year 2016 Publication 9th International Conference Improving Energy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings and Smart Communities Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 202-213  
  Keywords lighting design; lighting technology; light pollution  
  Abstract The lack of lighting planning for internal and external illumination of buildings contributes to wasting energy and to the issue of light pollution. This will be demonstrated with research from the ground and by analysis of images, taken with detectors on satellites, the International Space Station or planes. Besides large area floodlighting from airports or sports facilities, facade illumination is the most important contributor. The effects of malpractice versus sustainable lighting planning solutions will be demonstrated with some examples in cities like Bonn, Strasbourg, Athens and Thessaloniki. Further examples in the countryside will demonstrate lighting practice in the German star park Biosphere Reserve Rhön. Facade lighting planning, considering optimal alignment, the intensity and the colour quality of the illumination, will contribute to reducing light pollution and thus waste of energy and will increase human comfort at the same time.

Experience shows that unilateral promoting energy efficiency will finally result in more extended use of energy, which is known as rebound effect. In addition the small size and long lifetime of the modern solid state lighting will result in an increased use even in remote places thereby emitting more artificial light into the natural night. This does not only affect the energy use, but also the biological rhythms of animals and human beings.

More interdisciplinary criteria for a sustainable lighting with reduced light pollution will be discussed based on the observations including data provided by the EU-network “Loss of the Night”-Network (EU-COST Action ES1204 LoNNe).
 
  Address  
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  Publisher JRC Confernce and workshop reports Place of Publication Editor  
  Language (up) Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1573  
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