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Author Riley, W.D.; Bendall, B.; Ives, M.J.; Edmonds, N.J.; Maxwell, D.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Street lighting disrupts the diel migratory pattern of wild Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts leaving their natal stream Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Aquaculture Abbreviated Journal Aquaculture  
  Volume 330-333 Issue Pages 74-81  
  Keywords Artificial light; Behaviour; Migration; Salmon; Smolt; Street lighting  
  Abstract The migratory timing and behaviour of wild Atlantic salmon smolts leaving their natal stream was determined using a passive integrated transponder (PIT) antennae system at a study site on a tributary of the River Itchen, England. Experiments compared the downstream migration of smolts under natural control conditions (2000–2006) with two years (2008 and 2009) when the main downstream exit of the study site was subject to street-lit conditions every alternate night (maximum light intensity measured at the stream surface = 14 lx). Migration of smolts under control conditions was significantly (p < 0.01, n = 170) correlated with sunset. By contrast, street lighting resulted in the timing of migration being random (p = 0.11, n = 7; p = 0.76, n = 34, respectively) with respect to time of day. Furthermore, migration of smolts was significantly (p = 0.01, n = 19) correlated with the time of sunset for fish migrating when the lamp had been off, but random (p = 0.36, n = 22) when the lamp had been on (2008 and 2009 data, combined). This alteration in migratory behaviour due to street lighting may impact fitness.  
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  ISSN 0044-8486 ISBN Medium (up)  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 69  
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Author Sella, K.N.; Salmon, M.; Witherington, B.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Filtered Streetlights Attract Hatchling Marine Turtles Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Chelonian Conservation and Biology Abbreviated Journal Chelonian Conservation and Biology  
  Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 255-261  
  Keywords Reptilia; Testudines; Cheloniidae; Loggerhead turtle; turtles; marine turtles; reptiles; Caretta caretta; Chelonia mydas; hatchlings; artificial lighting; light “trapping”; orientation; seafinding; Florida  
  Abstract On many nesting beaches, hatchling marine turtles are exposed to poled street lighting that disrupts their ability to crawl to the sea. Experiments were done to determine how hatchlings responded to street lighting transmitted through 2 filters that excluded the most disruptive wavelengths (those <&#8201;530 nm; those <&#8201;570 nm). Filtered lighting, however, also attracted the turtles though not as strongly as an unfiltered (high-pressure sodium vapor) lighting. Filtering is therefore of limited utility for light management, especially since other alternatives (such as lowering, shielding, or turning off unnecessary lighting; use of dimmer lights embedded in roadways) are more effective.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1071-8443 ISBN Medium (up)  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 78  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Rockhill, A.P.; DePerno, C.S.; Powell, R.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effect of illumination and time of day on movements of bobcats (Lynx rufus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 8 Issue 7 Pages e69213  
  Keywords Animals; Female; *Lighting; Lynx/*physiology; Male; Moon; Movement/*physiology; North Carolina; Time Factors; Wetlands  
  Abstract Understanding behavioral changes of prey and predators based on lunar illumination provides insight into important life history, behavioral ecology, and survival information. The objectives of this research were to determine if bobcat movement rates differed by period of day (dark, moon, crepuscular, day), lunar illumination (<10%, 10 – <50%, 50 – <90%, >90%), and moon phase (new, full). Bobcats had high movement rates during crepuscular and day periods and low movement rates during dark periods with highest nighttime rates at 10-<50% lunar illumination. Bobcats had highest movement rates during daytime when nighttime illumination was low (new moon) and higher movement rates during nighttime when lunar illumination was high (full moon). The behaviors we observed are consistent with prey availability being affected by light level and by limited vision by bobcats during darkness.  
  Address Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA. aimee_rockhill@ncsu.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium (up)  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23861963; PMCID:PMC3704646 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 84  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Evans, J.A.; Carter, S.N.; Freeman, D.A.; Gorman, M.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dim nighttime illumination alters photoperiodic responses of hamsters through the intergeniculate leaflet and other photic pathways Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Neuroscience  
  Volume 202 Issue Pages 300-308  
  Keywords Animals; Biological Clocks/physiology; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Cricetinae; Darkness; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Geniculate Bodies/*physiology; *Lighting; Male; Motor Activity/physiology; Phodopus; *Photoperiod; Visual Pathways/*physiology  
  Abstract In mammals, light entrains the central pacemaker within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) through both a direct neuronal projection from the retina and an indirect projection from the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) of the thalamus. Although light comparable in intensity to moonlight is minimally effective at resetting the phase of the circadian clock, dimly lit and completely dark nights are nevertheless perceived differentially by the circadian system, even when nighttime illumination is below putative thresholds for phase resetting. Under a variety of experimental paradigms, dim nighttime illumination exerts effects that may be characterized as enhancing the plasticity of circadian entrainment. For example, relative to completely dark nights, dimly lit nights accelerate development of photoperiodic responses of Siberian hamsters transferred from summer to winter day lengths. Here we assess the neural pathways underlying this response by testing whether IGL lesions eliminate the effects of dim nighttime illumination under short day lengths. Consistent with previous work, dimly lit nights facilitated the expansion of activity duration under short day lengths. Ablation of the IGL, moreover, did not influence photoperiodic responses in animals held under completely dark nights. However, among animals that were provided dimly lit nights, IGL lesions prevented the short-day typical expansion of activity duration as well as the seasonally appropriate gonadal regression and reduction in body weight. Thus, the present data indicate that the IGL plays a central role in mediating the facilitative effects of dim nighttime illumination under short day lengths, but in the absence of the IGL, dim light at night influences photoperiodic responses through residual photic pathways.  
  Address Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA. jevans@msm.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0306-4522 ISBN Medium (up)  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22155265; PMCID:PMC3578228 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 87  
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Author Fonken, L.K.; Lieberman, R.A.; Weil, Z.M.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dim light at night exaggerates weight gain and inflammation associated with a high-fat diet in male mice Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Endocrinology Abbreviated Journal Endocrinology  
  Volume 154 Issue 10 Pages 3817-3825  
  Keywords Adipose Tissue, White/*immunology/metabolism/pathology; Animals; Antigens, CD11b/biosynthesis/genetics/metabolism; Appetite Regulation/*radiation effects; Arcuate Nucleus/*immunology/metabolism/pathology; Behavior, Animal/radiation effects; Circadian Rhythm; Cytokines/biosynthesis/genetics/metabolism; Diet, High-Fat/*adverse effects; Feeding Behavior/radiation effects; Gene Expression Regulation; Glucose Intolerance/etiology/immunology/metabolism/pathology; I-kappa B Kinase/biosynthesis/genetics/metabolism; Insulin Resistance; Lighting/*adverse effects; Male; Mice; Microglia/immunology/metabolism/pathology; Nerve Tissue Proteins/biosynthesis/genetics/metabolism; Obesity/*etiology/immunology/metabolism/pathology; Random Allocation; *Weight Gain  
  Abstract Elevated nighttime light exposure is associated with symptoms of metabolic syndrome. In industrialized societies, high-fat diet (HFD) and exposure to light at night (LAN) often cooccur and may contribute to the increasing obesity epidemic. Thus, we hypothesized that dim LAN (dLAN) would provoke additional and sustained body mass gain in mice on a HFD. Male mice were housed in either a standard light/dark cycle or dLAN and fed either chow or HFD. Exposure to dLAN and HFD increase weight gain, reduce glucose tolerance, and alter insulin secretion as compared with light/dark cycle and chow, respectively. The effects of dLAN and HFD appear additive, because mice exposed to dLAN that were fed HFD display the greatest increases in body mass. Exposure to both dLAN and HFD also change the timing of food intake and increase TNFalpha and MAC1 gene expression in white adipose tissue after 4 experimental weeks. Changes in MAC1 gene expression occur more rapidly due to HFD as compared with dLAN; after 5 days of experimental conditions, mice fed HFD already increase MAC1 gene expression in white adipose tissue. HFD also elevates microglia activation in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and hypothalamic TNFalpha, IL-6, and Ikbkb gene expression. Microglia activation is increased by dLAN, but only among chow-fed mice and dLAN does not affect inflammatory gene expression. These results suggest that dLAN exaggerates weight gain and peripheral inflammation associated with HFD.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, 636 Biomedical Research Tower, 460 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210. fonken.1@osu.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0013-7227 ISBN Medium (up)  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23861373 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 93  
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