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Author Shang, Y.-M.; Wang, G.-S.; Sliney, D.; Yang, C.-H.; Lee, L.-L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at domestic lighting levels and retinal injury in a rat model Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Environmental Health Perspectives Abbreviated Journal Environ Health Perspect  
  Volume 122 Issue 3 Pages 269-276  
  Keywords LED; light emitting diode; lighting; retina; Eye Diseases; blue light; Blue-rich light sources  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) deliver higher levels of blue light to the retina than do conventional domestic light sources. Chronic exposure to high-intensity light (2,000-10,000 lux) has previously been found to result in light-induced retinal injury, but chronic exposure to relatively low-intensity (750 lux) light has not been previously assessed with LEDs in a rodent model. OBJECTIVE: We examined LED-induced retinal neuronal cell damage in the Sprague-Dawley rat using functional, histological, and biochemical measurements. METHODS: We used blue LEDs (460 nm) and full-spectrum white LEDs, coupled with matching compact fluorescent lights, for exposures. Pathological examinations included electroretinogram, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We also measured free radical production in the retina to determine the oxidative stress level. RESULTS: H&E staining and TEM revealed apoptosis and necrosis of photoreceptors, which indicated blue-light induced photochemical injury of the retina. Free radical production in the retina was increased in LED-exposed groups. IHC staining demonstrated that oxidative stress was associated with retinal injury. Although we found serious retinal light injury in LED groups, the compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) groups showed moderate to mild injury. CONCLUSION: Our results raise questions about adverse effects on the retina from chronic exposure to LED light compared with other light sources that have less blue light. Thus, we suggest a precautionary approach with regard to the use of blue-rich “white” LEDs for general lighting. CITATION: Shang YM, Wang GS, Sliney D, Yang CH, Lee LL. 2014. White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at domestic lighting levels and retinal injury in a rat model. Environ Health Perspect 122:269-276; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307294.  
  Address Institute of Environmental Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0091-6765 ISBN Medium (up)  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24362357; PMCID:PMC3948037 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 324  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Fuller, G. (ed) pdf  openurl
  Title The Night Shift: Lighting and Nocturnal Strepsirrhine Care in Zoos Type Book Whole
  Year 2013 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords zoos; light at night; circadian disruption; strepsirrhines; primates; lorises; pottos; lighting design  
  Abstract Over billions of years of evolution, light from the sun, moon, and stars has provided

organisms with reliable information about the passage of time. Photic cues entrain

the circadian system, allowing animals to perform behaviors critical for survival and

reproduction at optimal times. Modern artificial lighting has drastically altered

environmental light cues. Evidence is accumulating that exposure to light at night

(particularly blue wavelengths) from computer screens, urban light pollution, or as

an occupational hazard of night-shift work has major implications for human health.

Nocturnal animals are the shift workers of zoos; they are generally housed on

reversed light cycles so that daytime visitors can observe their active behaviors. As a

result, they are exposed to artificial light throughout their subjective night. The goal

of this investigation was to examine critically the care of nocturnal strepsirrhine

primates in North American zoos, focusing on lorises (Loris and Nycticebus spp.) and pottos (Perodicticus potto). The general hypothesis was that exhibit lighting design affects activity patterns and circadian physiology in nocturnal strepsirrhines. The

first specific aim was to assess the status of these populations. A multi-institutional husbandry survey revealed little consensus among zoos in lighting design, with both red and blue light commonly used for nocturnal illumination. A review of medical records also revealed high rates of neonate mortality. The second aim was to

develop methods for measuring the effects of exhibit lighting on behavior and

health. The use of actigraphy for automated activity monitoring was explored.

Methods were also developed for measuring salivary melatonin and cortisol as

indicators of circadian disruption. Finally, a multi-institutional study was conducted

comparing behavioral and endocrine responses to red and blue dark phase lighting.

These results showed greater activity levels in strepsirrhines housed under red light than blue. Salivary melatonin concentrations in pottos suggested that blue light

suppressed nocturnal melatonin production at higher intensities, but evidence for

circadian disruption was equivocal. These results add to the growing body of

evidence on the detrimental effects of blue light at night and are a step towards

empirical recommendations for nocturnal lighting design in zoos.
 
  Address Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University  
  Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor Fuller, G.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium (up)  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 327  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Gil-de-Castro, A.; Moreno-Munoz, A.; Larsson, A.; de la Rosa, J.; Bollen, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title LED street lighting: A power quality comparison among street light technologies Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology  
  Volume 45 Issue 6 Pages 710-728  
  Keywords LED; LED lighting; high-pressure sodium; HPS; outdoor lighting; lighting technology  
  Abstract High-pressure sodium lamps are currently the main lamps used in public lighting. However, the possibility of using high-power light emitting diode (LEDs) for street lighting is growing continuously due to their greater energy efficiency, robustness, long life and light control. The aim of this paper is to study the power quality of high-power lighting networks based on LED and high-pressure sodium lamps. Both electromagnetic and dimmable electronic ballasts, which can dim the lamp output smoothly and uniformly, have been used connected to high-pressure sodium lamps. High-pressure sodium lamps connected to electronic equipment have been tested with different arc power levels using dimming on a 230 V power supply. The study presented in this paper is completely based on measurements, including harmonic currents in the frequency range up to 150 kHz for all the technologies. The main results show a broadband spectrum in LED lamps which confirms other research in fluorescent lamps powered by high-frequency ballasts. Results also indicate a decrease in the harmonic value with increasing harmonic order, and a decrease in the harmonic value at half load (60%) compared with full load (100%). Although total harmonic distortion of the current is lower with high-pressure sodium lamps connected to electronic rather than electromagnetic ballasts, LED lamps achieved the lowest total harmonic distortion of current.  
  Address Department of Computer Architecture, Electronics and Electronic Technology, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium (up)  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 333  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Johansson, M.; Rosen, M.; Kuller, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Individual factors influencing the assessment of the outdoor lighting of an urban footpath Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology  
  Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages 31-43  
  Keywords footpath lighting; pathway lighting; outdoor lighting; lighting perception  
  Abstract During the hours of darkness, the mobility of young women, the elderly and the disabled is limited in urban areas. In a field study possible predictors of the perceived visual accessibility and the perceived danger of an urban footpath were investigated. Eighty-one people individually walked along the footpath after dark. They subjectively assessed the environment and answered a questionnaire about personality and socio-demographics. Visual accessibility was predicted by visual field, environmental trust and brightness. Danger was predicted by the pleasantness of the lighting, gender, brightness and environmental trust. Consequently, the influence of individual characteristics, including the subjective judgments of brightness and hedonic tone and the personality dimension of trust in the physical environment, should be considered in the design of exterior lighting for urban footpaths.  
  Address Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment Lund University, Sweden  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium (up)  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 334  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Sperber, A.N.; Elmore, A.C.; Crow, M.L.; Cawlfield, J.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Performance evaluation of energy efficient lighting associated with renewable energy applications Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Renewable Energy Abbreviated Journal Renewable Energy  
  Volume 44 Issue Pages 423-430  
  Keywords Renewable energy; Energy efficiency; Ultra capacitor; Light emitting diodes; Metal halide; LED; LED lighting  
  Abstract Energy efficiency is a primary consideration when designing off-grid renewable energy systems including portable micro-grids. This study focuses on characterizing the potential benefits associated with using energy efficient exterior area lighting commonly associated with remote installations. Light emitting diode (LED) luminaires are becoming more commercially available, and this study compares two LED products designed for exterior lighting to traditional metal halide lamps. The characterization focuses on the use of a diesel generator, battery bank, and a bank of ultra capacitors (UCAPs) to power the lights because these systems are also used to generate or store energy at renewable energy-powered micro-grids. This field-based study quantifies the illuminance provided by each lighting system, diesel consumption rates associated with powering the lights and/or charging the batteries and UCAPs, and the time of operation for each lighting system when powered by a single discharge cycle of the batteries and UCAPs. The energy efficiency benefit of the LED luminaires is offset by their lower illuminance. However, a comparison of lighting standards for specific purposes such as security lighting indicates that LEDs may be appropriate for applications where a metal halide system would provide significantly more illumination than required at a much higher energy cost. For those purposes where higher levels of illuminance are required, the data presented in the paper may be useful in designing a renewable energy-powered micro-grid that uses multiple LED fixtures to illuminate an exterior area that is currently illuminated by a single metal halide light stand.  
  Address Geological Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 129 McNutt Hall, 1400 N. Bishop Avenue Rolla, MO 65409, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-1481 ISBN Medium (up)  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 335  
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