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Author Steinbach, R.; Perkins, C.; Tompson, L.; Johnson, S.; Armstrong, B.; Green, J.; Grundy, C.; Wilkinson, P.; Edwards, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effect of reduced street lighting on road casualties and crime in England and Wales: controlled interrupted time series analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Epidemiology Community Health Abbreviated Journal J. Epidemiol. Community Health  
  Volume 69 Issue 11 Pages  
  Keywords Safety; public safety; England; Wales; United Kindgom; traffic safety; street lighting; outdoor lighting; crime; security; light adaptation strategies  
  Abstract Background: Many local authorities in England and Wales have reduced street lighting at night to save money and reduce carbon emissions. There is no evidence to date on whether these reductions impact on public health. We quantified the effect of 4 street lighting adaptation strategies (switch off, part-night lighting, dimming and white light) on casualties and crime in England and Wales.

Methods: Observational study based on analysis of geographically coded police data on road traffic collisions and crime in 62 local authorities. Conditional Poisson models were used to analyse longitudinal changes in the counts of night-time collisions occurring on affected roads during 2000–2013, and crime within census Middle Super Output Areas during 2010–2013. Effect estimates were adjusted for regional temporal trends in casualties and crime.

Results: There was no evidence that any street lighting adaptation strategy was associated with a change in collisions at night. There was significant statistical heterogeneity in the effects on crime estimated at police force level. Overall, there was no evidence for an association between the aggregate count of crime and switch off (RR 0.11; 95% CI 0.01 to 2.75) or part-night lighting (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.86 to 1.06). There was weak evidence for a reduction in the aggregate count of crime and dimming (RR 0.84; 95% CI 0.70 to 1.02) and white light (RR 0.89; 95% CI 0.77 to 1.03).

Conclusions: This study found little evidence of harmful effects of switch off, part-night lighting, dimming, or changes to white light/LEDs on road collisions or crime in England and Wales.
 
  Address Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK; Phil.Edwards(at)lshtm.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher BMJ Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1470-2738 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1224  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Kantermann, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Does ambient light at night reduce total melatonin production? Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Hormones Abbreviated Journal Hormones  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Human Health; melatonin; ambient lighting; indoor light; sleep; *Circadian Rhythm; chronotype  
  Abstract It was with great interest that we read the recent study by Hersh et al on the effects of sleep and light at night on melatonin in adolescents. Of particular interest was their focus on electronic use after “lights out”. The authors highlight the importance of understanding what effects this may have on sleep, citing a survey that showed that 72% of American 13-18 year olds regularly use a cellphone or computer before trying to go to sleep. In their study, Hersh et al1 did not observe a significant suppression in urinary morning melatonin (aMT6s) levels with respect to the use of electronic devices between lights off and sleep onset. Therefore, the authors conclude that “nighttime behaviors of adolescents by and large do not impact urinary melatonin levels”. Absence of evidence, however, is not the same as evidence of absence, and we believe that the authors’ conclusion is premature.  
  Address Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ, Telegraphenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany; kyba(at)gfz-potsdam.de  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Hellenic Endocrine Society Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1236  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Wakefield, A.; Stone, E.L.; Jones, G.; Harris, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light-emitting diode street lights reduce last-ditch evasive manoeuvres by moths to bat echolocation calls Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal Roy. Soc. Open Sci.  
  Volume 2 Issue 8 Pages  
  Keywords Animals; artificial lighting; light-emitting diode; street lights; bats; moth predation; Nyctalus  
  Abstract The light-emitting diode (LED) street light market is expanding globally, and it is important to understand how LED lights affect wildlife populations. We compared evasive flight responses of moths to bat echolocation calls experimentally under LED-lit and -unlit conditions. Significantly, fewer moths performed ‘powerdive’ flight manoeuvres in response to bat calls (feeding buzz sequences from Nyctalus spp.) under an LED street light than in the dark. LED street lights reduce the anti-predator behaviour of moths, shifting the balance in favour of their predators, aerial hawking bats.  
  Address School of Biological Sciences, Life Sciences Building, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TQ, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1237  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Rea, M.S.; Bullough, J.D.; Brons, M.S., J.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Parking lot lighting based upon predictions of scene brightness and personal safety Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Res. & Tech.  
  Volume 49 Issue 3 Pages 293-304  
  Keywords Lightingl Security; parking lots; public perceptions; lighting levels  
  Abstract Providing subjective impressions of security is central to outdoor lighting design. Current parking lot lighting recommendations are based upon photopic illuminances, regardless of spectrum. Scene brightness perception is directly related to impressions of security, and depends upon both light level and spectrum. A provisional model was used to predict scene brightness for three parking lots, each illuminated to different levels by different light sources. Observers judged scene brightness, security and other factors for each lot. The provisional model accurately predicted both scene brightness and security judgements. The lighting associated with the best subjective ratings also had the lowest power density. A design method using ‘brightness illuminance’ is presented, which can lower system costs while maintaining a sense of security by users.  
  Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 21 Union Street, Troy, NY 12180, USA. Email: ream(at)rpi.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher SAGE Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1477-0938 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1256  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Vaaja, M.; Kurkela, M.; Virtanen, J.-P.; Maksimainen, M.; Hyyppä, H.; Hyyppä, J.; Tetri, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Luminance-Corrected 3D Point Clouds for Road and Street Environments Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 7 Issue 9 Pages 11389-11402  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1258  
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