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Author Tähkämö, L.; Ylinen, A.; Puolakka, M.; Halonen, L.
Title Life cycle cost analysis of three renewed street lighting installations in Finland Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication (down) The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment Abbreviated Journal Int J Life Cycle Assess
Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 154-164
Keywords LED; LED lighting; Life cycle costs; Light-emitting diode; Payback time; Road lighting; Street lighting
Abstract Purpose

Outdoor lighting is facing major changes due to the EU legislation on ecodesign of energy-related products, such as the ban of high-pressure mercury (HPM) lamps widely used in outdoor lighting. This article presents life cycle costs (LCC) of three examples of replacing HPM lamps in street lighting in Finland. The purpose of the article is to assess how the development of light-emitting diode (LED) technology affects LCCs and how the division of LCCs differentiates in the cases.

Methods

Two of the cases change from HPM lamps to high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps. In the third one, HPM lamps are replaced by LED luminaires. LED technology predictions of price and luminous efficacy are included in different scenarios. The calculations consider investment and operating costs and residual value.

Results and discussion

Each replacement reduces the energy costs approximately by half compared to the original HPM lamp luminaires. Energy costs dominate the LCCs of the HPS lamp installations while investment cost is the dominating one in LED luminaire case. The changes from HPM to HPS technology have payback times lower than 9 years, while changing to LED luminaires is not economic. However, the electricity price is low in this case. The payback times of LED installations can be as low as 6 years if the luminaires are installed in 2015 and an average electricity price is used.

Conclusions

The LCCs of real-life case studies cannot be directly compared, since their luminous properties vary. There is a need for a method for including luminous properties in LCC calculations.
Address Lighting Unit, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13340, 00076, Aalto, Finland
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0948-3349 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 332
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Author Tähkämö, L.; Räsänen, R.-S.; Halonen, L.
Title Life cycle cost comparison of high-pressure sodium and light-emitting diode luminaires in street lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication (down) The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment Abbreviated Journal Int J Life Cycle Assess
Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 137-145
Keywords Economics; Lighting
Abstract Purpose

Cities and municipalities are facing a great challenge in 2015 when the widely used high-pressure mercury lamps are banned from the European Union market. This results to approximately 18 million lamps to be changed to other light source technologies suitable for outdoor lighting. The most probable replacement technologies are high-pressure sodium and light-emitting diode luminaires. The article provides economic information for the cities and municipalities to use when making the decision on the choice of technology.

Methods

A life cycle cost analysis was conducted for the high-pressure sodium and light-emitting diode luminaires including the investment costs, operating costs and residual value over 30-year time frame. The investment costs included the purchase prices of all parts, freight and installation costs. The operating costs accounted for the energy and maintenance costs, and the residual value was calculated using the 25 % estimate of the initial purchase price. The approach of the calculation considered only the luminaires to be installed; the scope of the study excluded the previous installations, which may contain any light source technology or be inexistent. The analysis excluded the poles, wiring and other infrastructure. A sensitivity analysis additionally studied six scenarios, in which relevant calculation parameters were changed.

Results and discussion

The life cycle cost analysis of the two road lighting luminaire technologies showed that the HPS luminaire was normally a more economical solution compared to the light-emitting diode (LED) luminaire. The total life cycle costs of the HPS luminaire were 45 % lower than those of the LED luminaire per kilometre. However, the scenarios in the sensitivity analysis indicated that there were circumstances where the cost-efficiency of the LED luminaire was particularly improved. In order for the LED technology to become fully competitive against the HPS technology, several scenarios have to take place simultaneously. The life cycle costs of the LED luminaire were reduced compared to the HPS luminaire by increased electricity price, exclusion of spot replacements, reduced purchase price and modularity of the LED luminaire.

Conclusions

Despite the greater luminous efficacy, the LED luminaire was found to have greater life cycle costs compared to the HPS luminaire. However, the LED technology is expected to become more economical in the future due to the development in luminous efficacy, improved product quality, reduction in the purchase price and the enhanced competition in the LED segment. Despite the unfavourable cost structure, the LED technology offers other benefits, such as lighting controls and colour characteristics.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0948-3349 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1725
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Author Zielinska-Dabkowska, K.M.; Xavia, K.
Title An overview of the cognitive and biological effects of city nighttime illumination including a London case study Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (down) The Centre for Conscious Design Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Lighting
Abstract Current scientific research demonstrates how critical the effects of city nighttime illumination are upon cognitive and biological health1 – which needs to be adequately acknowledged, understood and addressed by conscious cities and the plans they develop. Until recent decades, the design of nighttime lighting was determined mostly by electrical engineers who often applied technical standards to meet the requirements of vehicle-focused cities. Unfortunately, consideration of pedestrians and their visual needs to navigate throughout urbanscapes at night were ignored, and so too, was the impact that artificial lighting might have on them, and the environment. Today, the majority of urban city lighting has been installed without full awareness of its impact, and as a result, artificial light at night (ALAN) and light pollution have become an obvious public nuisance, a health risk and an environmental burden2,3. While poor lighting has its drawbacks, a lack of lighting can have many positive aspects, and urban settings can benefit from protecting, preserving and promoting natural darkness. We present two recent planning and design initiatives of London, in the UK, where the quality of light and value of darkness were not given the degree of attention and consideration they deserve. This paper has particular relevance for urban policy makers, city planners, architects, designers, consultants and researchers as it explores the various problems caused by the obvious lack of responsible nighttime illumination.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2296
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Author Entwistle, J.; Slater, D.
Title Making space for 'the social': connecting sociology and professional practices in urban lighting design Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication (down) The British Journal of Sociology Abbreviated Journal Br J Sociol
Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages 2020-2041
Keywords Sociology; Society; Lighting
Abstract Lighting is increasingly recognized as a significant social intervention by both lighting professionals and academic social scientists. However, what counts as 'the social' is diverse and contested, with consequences for what kind of 'social' is performed or invented. Based on a long-term research programme, we argue that collaboration between sociologists and lighting professionals requires negotiating discourses and practices of 'the social'. This paper explores the quality and kinds of spaces made for 'the social' in professional practices and academic collaborations, focusing on two case studies of urban lighting that demonstrate how the space of 'the social' is constrained and impoverished by an institutionalized division between technical and aesthetic lighting. We consider the potential role of sociologists in making more productive spaces for 'the social' in urban design, as part of the central sociological task of 'inventing the social' (Marres, Guggenheim and Wilkie 2018) in the process of studying it.
Address Department of Sociology, London School of Economics; d.slater(at)lse.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0007-1315 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30864152 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2265
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Author Franceschini, S.; Pansera, M.
Title Beyond unsustainable eco-innovation: The role of narratives in the evolution of the lighting sector Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication (down) Technological Forecasting and Social Change Abbreviated Journal Technological Forecasting and Social Change
Volume 92 Issue Pages 69-83
Keywords Lighting, Society
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0040-1625 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1186
Permanent link to this record