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Author Straka, T.M.; Greif, S.; Schultz, S.; Goerlitz, H.R.; Voigt, C.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effect of cave illumination on bats Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Global Ecology and Conservation Abbreviated Journal Global Ecology and Conservation  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals; Lighting  
  Abstract Artificial light at night has large impacts on nocturnal wildlife such as bats, yet its effect varies with wavelength of light, context, and across species involved. Here, we studied in two experiments how wild bats of cave-roosting species (Rhinolophus mehelyi, R. euryale, Myotis capaccinii and Miniopterus schreibersii) respond to LED lights of different colours. In dual choice experiments, we measured the acoustic activity of bats in response to neutral-white, red or amber LED at a cave entrance and in a flight room – mimicking a cave interior. In the flight room, M. capaccinii and M. schreibersii preferred red to white light, but showed no preference for red over amber, or amber over white light. In the cave entrance experiment, all light colours reduced the activity of all emerging species, yet red LED had the least negative effect. Rhinolophus species reacted most strongly, matching their refusal to fly at all under any light treatment in the flight room. We conclude that the placement and light colour of LED light should be considered carefully in lighting concepts for caves both in the interior and at the entrance. In a cave interior, red LED light could be chosen – if needed at all – for careful temporary illumination of areas, yet areas important for bats should be avoided based on the precautionary principle. At cave entrances, the high sensitivity of most bat species, particularly of Rhinolophus spp., towards light sources almost irrespective of colour, calls for utmost caution when illuminating cave entrances.  
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  ISSN 2351-9894 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2700  
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Author Marchant, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Do brighter, whiter street lights improve road safety? Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Significance Abbreviated Journal Significance  
  Volume 16 Issue 5 Pages 8-9  
  Keywords Public Safety; Lighting; Statistics  
  Abstract Would a billion‐dollar investment in improved street lighting make Australian roads safer at night? Paul Marchant finds the evidence wanting  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1740-9705 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2686  
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Author Ebbensgaard, C.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Standardised difference: Challenging uniform lighting through standards and regulation Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Urban Studies Abbreviated Journal Urban Studies  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Regulation; Lighting; Conservation; Darkness; Planning; Society  
  Abstract Artificial lighting has received increased attention from urban scholars and geographers in recent years. It is celebrated for its experimental aesthetics and experiential qualities and critiqued for its adverse effects on biological life and the environment. Yet scholars and practitioners unite in their disapproval of uniform and homogenous lighting that follows from standardised lighting technologies and design principles. Absent from debates in urban scholarship and geography, however, is any serious consideration of how lighting designers respond to such standardised measures and regulations. In this article, I address this lack of academic attention by exploring how designers overturn the restrictive challenges posed by the standards and regulations of the design and planning process. Drawing on interviews with designers involved in the lighting design of a mixed-use redevelopment project in Canning Town, East London, I demonstrate how the interpretation and translation of lighting standards and regulations resist the tendency to predetermine design aesthetics and functions. By drawing attention away from the technical specifications and numerical values that are prescribed in standards and regulations, and towards lighting’s experiential and performative effects, the article argues that lighting designers can play an important role in challenging how standards and regulations are measured, defined and maintained. Calling on urban scholars to play a more prominent role in foregrounding this process of translation, I suggest that standards and regulations can provide frameworks within which luminous differentiation and preservation of darkness can be achieved, playing a potentially crucial role in ensuring a socially and environmentally sustainable transition to energy efficient lighting.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0042-0980 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2678  
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Author Long, X.; Tie, X.; Zhou, J.; Dai, W.; Li, X.; Feng, T.; Li, G.; Cao, J.; An, Z. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Impact of the Green Light Program on haze in the North China Plain, China Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Abbreviated Journal Atmos. Chem. Phys.  
  Volume 19 Issue 17 Pages 11185-11197  
  Keywords Economics; Lighting; Planning  
  Abstract As the world's largest developing country, China has undergone ever-increasing demand for electricity during the past few decades. In 1996, China launched the Green Light Program (GLP), which became a national energy conservation activity for saving lighting electricity as well as an effective reduction of the coal consumption for power generation. Despite the great success of the GLP, its effects on haze have not been investigated and well understood. This study focused on assessing the potential coal saving induced by the improvement of luminous efficacy, the core of the GLP, and on estimating the consequent effects on the haze in the North China Plain (NCP), where a large number of power plants are located and are often engulfed by severe haze. The estimated potential coal saving induced by the GLP can reach a massive value of 120–323 million tons, accounting for 6.7 %–18.0 % of the total coal consumption for thermal power generation in China. There was a massive potential emission reduction of air pollutants from thermal power generation in the NCP, which was estimated to be 20.0–53.8 Gg for NOx and 6.9–18.7 Gg for SO2 in December 2015. The potential emission reduction induced by the GLP plays important roles in the haze formation, because the NOx and SO2 are important precursors for the formation of particles. To assess the impact of the GLP on haze, sensitivity studies were conducted by applying a regional chemical–dynamical model (WRF-CHEM). The model results suggest that in the case of lower-limit emission reduction, the PM2.5 concentration decreased by 2–5 µg m−3 in large areas of the NCP. In the case of upper-limit emission reduction, there was much more remarkable decrease in PM2.5 concentration (4–10 µg m−3). This study is a good example to illustrate that scientific innovation can induce important benefits for environment issues such as haze.  
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  ISSN 1680-7324 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2671  
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Author Chen, S.; Li, W.; Yang, S.; Zhang, B.; Li, T.; Du, Y.; Yang, M.; Zhao, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Evaluation method and reduction measures for the flicker effect in road lighting using fixed Low Mounting Height Luminaires Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology Abbreviated Journal Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology  
  Volume 93 Issue Pages 103101  
  Keywords Lighting; Vision  
  Abstract Low Mounting Height Luminaires (LMHL) are used in many cities on viaducts, cross-sea and cross-river bridges due to their unique advantages. However, the flicker effect is an important factor that needs to be considered in road lighting using fixed LMHL. At present, there are not many researchers in the field of international lighting. Previous types of road lighting design were based on the method of the tunnel lighting flicker effect. At the same time, the flicker effect is mainly based on the subjective feelings of people but is not quantified. In this paper, the Flicker Index (FI) is calculated by measuring the parameters of streetlamps to evaluation flicker effect. Secondly, the suggestion to offset the flicker effect in CIE 88-2004 “Guide for the Lighting of Road Tunnels and Underpasses” is to limit the speed of the vehicle and adjust the road light spacing to avoid the flicker sensitive area on human eyes, while ignoring the essential problem of how the flicker effect is generated through the energy level of the stimulating optical signal. Two factors affecting the strength of the flicker effect are proposed: energy ratio and duty cycle. The duty cycle, in time, refers to the proportion of the strong and weak flashing signals during the period; in space, it refers to the proportional relationship between the length of the luminaire and the distance between the lamps, which is related to the running speed of the vehicle. It is consistent with the CIE recommendations for flicker. Thirdly, the essence of the flicker effect is the problem of the energy level of the stimulus signal. This study investigated the reduction in the brightness of the light source, hence reducing the energy of the visual stimulation signal to the human eye in order to judge the degree of fatigue in human vision. The experimental results show that the degree of fatigue in human vision decreases when the brightness of the experimental light source decreases. Therefore, the key to changing the flicker effect of LMHL is to reduce the contrast between the surface brightness of the luminaire and the brightness of the spatial background.  
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  ISSN 0886-7798 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2663  
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