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Author Rowse, E.G.; Harris, S.; Jones, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (down) The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages e0150884  
  Keywords Animals; bats; England; United Kingdom; low-pressure sodium; LPS; LED; LED lighting; ecology; urban ecology; Feeding Behavior  
  Abstract We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS) to light emitting diode (LED) street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum 'white' light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats flying around the LPS lights were aerial-hawking species, and the species composition of bats remained the same after the switch-over to LED. We found that the switch-over from LPS to LED street lights did not affect the activity (number of bat passes), or the proportion of passes containing feeding buzzes, of those bat species typically found in close proximity to street lights in suburban environments in Britain. This is encouraging from a conservation perspective as many existing street lights are being, or have been, switched to LED before the ecological consequences have been assessed. However, lighting of all spectra studied to date generally has a negative impact on several slow-flying bat species, and LED lights are rarely frequented by these 'light-intolerant' bat species.  
  Address School of Biological Sciences, Life Sciences Building, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, United Kingdom; liz.rowse(at)bristol.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher PLOS Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27008274 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1403  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Edison, T.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (down) The Success of the Electric Light Type Magazine Article
  Year 1880 Publication The North American Review Abbreviated Journal N. American Rev.  
  Volume 131 Issue 287 Pages 295-300  
  Keywords Society; history; artificial light; Lighting  
  Abstract (none)  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher University of Northern Iowa Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1272  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Sullivan, J.M.; Flannagan, M.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (down) The role of ambient light level in fatal crashes: inferences from daylight saving time transitions Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Accident Analysis & Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accident Analysis & Prevention  
  Volume 34 Issue 4 Pages 487-498  
  Keywords Public Safety; Lighting  
  Abstract The purpose of this study was to estimate the size of the influence of ambient light level on fatal pedestrian and vehicle crashes in three scenarios. The scenarios were: fatal pedestrian crashes at intersections, fatal pedestrian crashes on dark rural roads, and fatal single-vehicle run-off-road crashes on dark, curved roads. Each scenario's sensitivity to light level was evaluated by comparing the number of fatal crashes across changes to and from daylight saving time, within daily time periods in which an abrupt change in light level occurs relative to official clock time. The analyses included 11 years of fatal crashes in the United States, between 1987 and 1997. Scenarios involving pedestrians were most sensitive to light level, in some cases showing up to seven times more risk at night over daytime. In contrast, single-vehicle run-off-road crashes showed little difference between light and dark time periods, suggesting factors other than light level play the dominant role in these crashes. These results are discussed in the context of the possible safety improvements offered by new developments in adaptive vehicle headlighting.  
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  ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2126  
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Author Scott, R. url  openurl
  Title (down) THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ROAD LIGHTING QUALITY AND ACCIDENT FREQUENCY – TRRL LABORATORY REPORT 929. Type Journal Article
  Year 1980 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Lighting; quality; accident rate; accident; frequency; luminance; glare; uniformity; urban area; daylight; darkness; surfacing; pedestrian  
  Abstract many studies have related changes in accident frequency to the presence of street lighting, and a few have examined its variation over a range of lighting quality, as measured by illuminance. this investigation attempts to find which of several measures of lighting (describing quantity – as represented by luminance or illuminance – uniformity and glare) most clearly explain variations in accident frequency. about 100 lit sites, almost all in built-up areas, were measured for lighting quality in dry-road conditions. the lighting variables measured were related to the dark:day ratios of accident frequency for the same sites. the strongest relationship found was that for average road surface luminance: in the range 0.5-2.0 candelas/m2, it is estimated that an increase of 1 cd/m2 is associated with a 35 per cent lower accident ratio. other measures of luminance and illuminance were also found to be related to accident ratio (and to each other), but not as clearly as was average road luminance, which is therefore the preferred explanatory variable. analysis of pedestrian and non-pedestrian accidents separately did not reveal a relationship between the former and lighting quality. in contrast, non-pedestrian accidents showed similar relationships to those for all accidents, with the addition of a possible relationship with overall uniformity of luminance.(a)  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 647  
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Author Boyce, P.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (down) The Present and Future of Lighting Research Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication SDAR* Journal of Sustainable Design & Applied Research Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages  
  Keywords Commentary; Lighting; Vision; Human Health  
  Abstract The aim of this paper is to consider where lighting research is today and what its future might be. There is little doubt that, today, lighting research is an active field. A brief review of the topics being studied reveals that they range from residual studies on visibility and visual discomfort, through attempts to identify the influence of lighting on factors beyond visibility such as mood and behaviour, to the whole new field of light and health. But activity alone is not enough to justify a future. For lighting research to have a future it is necessary for it to

be influential. To become influential, research needs to focus its attention on outcomes that matter to people and the elements of those outcomes on which lighting is known to have a major influence. Further, researchers will have to be determined to overcome the barriers to changing lighting practice. By doing this, lighting research may change the world for the better, to be an important topic, not an irrelevance.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2113  
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