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Author Hale, J.D.; Fairbrass, A.J.; Matthews, T.J.; Davies, G.; Sadler, J.P.
Title (down) The ecological impact of city lighting scenarios: exploring gap crossing thresholds for urban bats Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Animals; Connectivity; Lighting; Movement; Pipistrellus pipistrellus; Scenarios; Urban; Urbanization; gap crossing
Abstract As the global population urbanises, dramatic changes are expected in city lighting and the urban form, which may threaten the functioning of urban ecosystems and the services they deliver. However, little is known about the ecological impact of lighting in different urban contexts. Movement is an important ecological process that can be disrupted by artificial lighting. We explored the impact of lighting on gap crossing for Pipistrellus pipistrellus, a species of bat (Chiroptera) common within UK cities. We aimed to determine whether the probability of crossing gaps in tree cover varied with crossing distance and lighting level, through stratified field surveys. We then used the resulting data on barrier thresholds to model the landscape resistance due to lighting across an entire city and explored the potential impact of scenarios for future changes to street lighting. The level of illumination required to create a barrier effect reduced as crossing distance increased. For those gaps where crossing was recorded, bats selected the darker parts of gaps. Heavily built parts of the case study city were associated with large and brightly lit gaps, and spatial models indicate movement would be highly restricted in these areas. Under a scenario for brighter street lighting, the area of accessible land-cover was further reduced in heavily built parts of the city. We believe that this is the first study to demonstrate how lighting may create resistance to species movement throughout an entire city. That connectivity in urban areas is being disrupted for a relatively common species raises questions about the impacts on less tolerant groups and the resilience of bat communities in urban centres. However, this mechanistic approach raises the possibility that some ecological function could be restored in these areas through the strategic dimming of lighting and narrowing of gaps. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, West Midlands, United Kingdom
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:25644403 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1100
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Author Hough, W.
Title (down) The development of illumination Type Journal Article
Year 1901 Publication American Anthropologist Abbreviated Journal
Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages 342-352
Keywords History; Society; Lighting
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2416
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Author Owen, D.
Title (down) The Dark Side. Making war on light pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication The New Yorker Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Lighting
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 791
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Author Hölker, F.; Moss, T.; Griefahn, B.; Kloas, W.; Voigt, C.; et al.
Title (down) The Dark Side of Light: A Transdisciplinary Research Agenda for Light Pollution Policy Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Ecol Soc Abbreviated Journal
Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages
Keywords Ecology; artificial light; energy efficiency; lighting concept; light pollution; nightscape; policy; sustainability; transdisciplinary
Abstract Although the invention and widespread use of artificial light is clearly one of the most important human technological advances, the transformation of nightscapes is increasingly recognized as having adverse effects. Night lighting may have serious physiological consequences for humans, ecological and evolutionary implications for animal and plant populations, and may reshape entire ecosystems. However, knowledge on the adverse effects of light pollution is vague. In response to climate change and energy shortages, many countries, regions, and communities are developing new lighting programs and concepts with a strong focus on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions. Given the dramatic increase in artificial light at night (0 – 20% per year, depending on geographic region), we see an urgent need for light pollution policies that go beyond energy efficiency to include human well-being, the structure and functioning of ecosystems, and inter-related socioeconomic consequences. Such a policy shift will require a sound transdisciplinary understanding of the significance of the night, and its loss, for humans and the natural systems upon which we depend. Knowledge is also urgently needed on suitable lighting technologies and concepts which are ecologically, socially, and economically sustainable. Unless managing darkness becomes an integral part of future conservation and lighting policies, modern society may run into a global self-experiment with unpredictable outcomes.
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 478
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Author Boyce, P.R.
Title (down) The benefits of light at night Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Building and Environment Abbreviated Journal Building and Environment
Volume 151 Issue Pages 356-367
Keywords Lighting; Society; Conservation
Abstract The use of light at night continues to increase. Simply put, this is because without light we are deprived of our premier sense, vision. By enabling vision the use of light at night delivers a number of benefits to people. Such benefits include greater safety for pedestrians and drivers, reduced fear of crime, more use of outdoor facilities after dark, enhanced economic growth and the creation of built and natural environments that are a source of beauty and entertainment. This suggests that the use of light at night is linked to some very basic human motivations which in turn means that people value such benefits and will not willingly abandon them. Fortunately, careful lighting design, soundly-based outdoor lighting standards and new lighting and sensor technology offer the possibility of providing the benefits of light at night while minimizing the impact on the environment.
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ISSN 0360-1323 ISBN Medium
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2171
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