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Author Thawley, C.J.; Kolbe, J.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Artificial light at night increases growth and reproductive output in Anolis lizards Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci  
  Volume 287 Issue 1919 Pages 20191682  
  Keywords Animals; Female; Lighting; Lizards; Male; Reproduction; artificial light at night; invasive species; life history; reproduction; urbanization  
  Abstract Since the invention of electric lighting, artificial light at night (ALAN) has become a defining, and evolutionary novel, feature of human-altered environments especially in cities. ALAN imposes negative impacts on many organisms, including disrupting endocrine function, metabolism, and reproduction. However, we do not know how generalized these impacts are across taxa that exploit urban environments. We exposed brown anole lizards, an abundant and invasive urban exploiter, to relevant levels of ALAN in the laboratory and assessed effects on growth and reproduction at the start of the breeding season. Male and female anoles exposed to ALAN increased growth and did not suffer increased levels of corticosterone. ALAN exposure induced earlier egg-laying, likely by mimicking a longer photoperiod, and increased reproductive output without reducing offspring quality. These increases in growth and reproduction should increase fitness. Anoles, and potentially other taxa, may be resistant to some negative effects of ALAN and able to take advantage of the novel niche space ALAN creates. ALAN and both its negative and positive impacts may play a crucial role in determining which species invade and exploit urban environments.  
  Address Department of Biological Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA; cthawley ( at ) gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31964308; PMCID:PMC7015333 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 3308  
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Author Dimovski, A.M.; Robert, K.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Artificial light pollution: Shifting spectral wavelengths to mitigate physiological and health consequences in a nocturnal marsupial mammal Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol  
  Volume 329 Issue 8-9 Pages 497-505  
  Keywords Animals; Lighting  
  Abstract The focus of sustainable lighting tends to be on reduced CO2 emissions and cost savings, but not on the wider environmental effects. Ironically, the introduction of energy-efficient lighting, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), may be having a great impact on the health of wildlife. These white LEDs are generated with a high content of short-wavelength 'blue' light. While light of any kind can suppress melatonin and the physiological processes it regulates, these short wavelengths are potent suppressors of melatonin. Here, we manipulated the spectral composition of LED lights and tested their capacity to mitigate the physiological and health consequences associated with their use. We experimentally investigated the impact of white LEDs (peak wavelength 448 nm; mean irradiance 2.87 W/m(2) ), long-wavelength shifted amber LEDs (peak wavelength 605 nm; mean irradiance 2.00 W/m(2) ), and no lighting (irradiance from sky glow < 0.37 x 10(-3) W/m(2) ), on melatonin production, lipid peroxidation, and circulating antioxidant capacity in the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii). Night-time melatonin and oxidative status were determined at baseline and again following 10 weeks exposure to light treatments. White LED exposed wallabies had significantly suppressed nocturnal melatonin compared to no light and amber LED exposed wallabies, while there was no difference in lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant capacity declined from baseline to week 10 under all treatments. These results provide further evidence that short-wavelength light at night is a potent suppressor of nocturnal melatonin. Importantly, we also illustrate that shifting the spectral output to longer wavelengths could mitigate these negative physiological impacts.  
  Address Department of Ecology, Environment and Evolution, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2471-5638 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29722167 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1888  
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Author Stewart, A.J.A.; Perl, C.D.; Niven, J.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Artificial lighting impairs mate attraction in a nocturnal capital breeder Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication The Journal of Experimental Biology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Biol  
  Volume 223 Issue Pt 19 Pages  
  Keywords Animals; Artificial lighting at night (ALAN); Mate attraction; Mate choice; Sexual selection; Transect; Visual ecology; glow worms  
  Abstract Artificial lighting at night (ALAN) is increasingly recognised as having negative effects on many organisms, though the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Glow worms are likely susceptible to ALAN because females use bioluminescence to signal to attract males. We quantified the impact of ALAN by comparing the efficacy of traps that mimicked females to attract males in the presence or absence of a white artificial light source (ALS). Illuminated traps attracted fewer males than did traps in the dark. Illuminated traps closer to the ALS attracted fewer males than those further away, whereas traps in the dark attracted similar numbers of males up to 40 m from the ALS. Thus, ALAN impedes females' ability to attract males, the effect increasing with light intensity. Consequently, ALAN potentially affects glow worms' fecundity and long-term population survival. More broadly, this study emphasises the potentially severe deleterious effects of ALAN upon nocturnal insect populations.  
  Address School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK; j.e.niven ( at ) sussex.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher The Company of Biologists Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-0949 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32665443 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 3402  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Stevens, R.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Artificial lighting in the industrialized world: circadian disruption and breast cancer Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Cancer Causes & Control : CCC Abbreviated Journal Cancer Causes Control  
  Volume 17 Issue 4 Pages 501-507  
  Keywords Human Health; Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects; Animals; Breast Neoplasms/*etiology; Chronobiology Disorders/*etiology/physiopathology; Circadian Rhythm; Developing Countries; Female; Humans; Lighting/*adverse effects; Melatonin/metabolism; Risk Factors; Suprachiasmatic Nucleus/physiopathology  
  Abstract Breast cancer risk is high in industrialized societies, and increases as developing countries become more Westernized. The reasons are poorly understood. One possibility is circadian disruption from aspects of modern life, in particular the increasing use of electric power to light the night, and provide a sun-free environment during the day inside buildings. Circadian disruption could lead to alterations in melatonin production and in changing the molecular time of the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). There is evidence in humans that the endogenous melatonin rhythm is stronger for persons in a bright-day environment than in a dim-day environment; and the light intensity necessary to suppress melatonin at night continues to decline as new experiments are done. Melatonin suppression can increase breast tumorigenesis in experimental animals, and altering the endogenous clock mechanism may have downstream effects on cell cycle regulatory genes pertinent to breast tissue development and susceptibility. Therefore, maintenance of a solar day-aligned circadian rhythm in endogenous melatonin and in clock gene expression by exposure to a bright day and a dark night, may be a worthy goal. However, exogenous administration of melatonin in an attempt to achieve this goal may have an untoward effect given that pharmacologic dosing with melatonin has been shown to phase shift humans depending on the time of day it's given. Exogenous melatonin may therefore contribute to circadian disruption rather than alleviate it.  
  Address University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030-6325, USA. bugs@neuron.uchc.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0957-5243 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16596303 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 818  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Mammola, S.; Isaia, M.; Demonte, D.; Triolo, P.; Nervo, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Artificial lighting triggers the presence of urban spiders and their webs on historical buildings Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Landscape and Urban Planning Abbreviated Journal Landscape and Urban Planning  
  Volume 180 Issue Pages 187-194  
  Keywords Animals; Lighting  
  Abstract Different spider species living in the urban environment spin their webs on building facades. Due to air pollution, web aggregations entrap dirt particles over time, assuming a brownish-greyish colouration and thus determining an aesthetic impact on buildings and street furniture. In Europe, the most common species causing such an aesthetic nuisance is Brigittea civica (Lucas) (Dictynidae). In spite of the socio-economical relevance of the problem, the ecological factors driving the proliferation of this species in the urban environment are poorly described and the effectiveness of potential cleaning activities has never been discussed in scientific literature. Over one year, we studied the environmental drivers of B. civica webs in the arcades of the historical down-town district of Turin (NW-Italy). We selected a number of sampling plots on arcade ceilings and we estimated the density of B. civica webs by means of digital image analysis. In parallel, we collected information on a number of potential explanatory variables driving the arcade colonization, namely artificial lighting at night, substrate temperature, distance from the main artificial light sources and distance from the river. Regression analysis showed that the coverage of spider webs increased significantly at plots with higher light intensity, with a major effect related to the presence of historical lampposts with incandescent lamps rather than halogen lamps. We also detected a seasonal variation in the web coverage, with significant higher values in summer. Stemming from our results, we are able to suggest good practices for the containment of this phenomenon.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0169-2046 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2002  
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