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Author Lin, Y.; Liu, Y.; Sun, Y.; Zhu, X.; Lai, J.; Heynderickx, I.
Title Model predicting discomfort glare caused by LED road lights Type (up) Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Optics Express Abbreviated Journal Opt. Express
Volume 22 Issue 15 Pages 18056
Keywords LED; LED lighting; glare; road safety; traffic
Abstract To model discomfort glare from LED road lighting, the effect of four key variables on perceived glare was explored. These variables were: the average glare source luminance (Lg), the background luminance (Lb), the solid angle of the glare source from the perspective of the viewer; and the angle between the glare source and the line of sight. Based on these four variables 72 different light conditions were simulated in a scaled experimental set-up. Participants were requested to judge the perceived discomfort glare of these light conditions using the deBoer rating scale. All four variables and some of their interactions had indeed a significant effect on the deBoer rating. Based on these findings, we developed a model, and tested its general applicability in various verification experiments, including laboratory conditions as well as real road conditions. This verification proved the validity of the model with a correlation between measured and predicted values as high as 0.87 and a residual deviation of about 1 unit on the deBoer rating scale. These results filled the gap in estimating discomfort glare of LED road lighting and clarified similarities of and differences in discomfort glare between LED and traditional light sources.
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ISSN 1094-4087 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 351
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Author Pawson, S.M.; Bader, M.K.-F.
Title LED lighting increases the ecological impact of light pollution irrespective of color temperature Type (up) Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Ecological Applications Abbreviated Journal Ecological Applications
Volume 24 Issue 7 Pages 1561-1568
Keywords biodiversity; high-pressure sodium lamp; light pollution; spectra; street lighting; urbanization; LED; color temperature; ecology
Abstract Recognition of the extent and magnitude of night-time light pollution impacts on natural ecosystems is increasing, with pervasive effects observed in both nocturnal and diurnal species. Municipal and industrial lighting is on the cusp of a step change where energy-efficient lighting technology is driving a shift from “yellow” high-pressure sodium vapor lamps (HPS) to new “white” light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We hypothesized that white LEDs would be more attractive and thus have greater ecological impacts than HPS due to the peak UV-green-blue visual sensitivity of nocturnal invertebrates. Our results support this hypothesis; on average LED light traps captured 48% more insects than were captured with light traps fitted with HPS lamps, and this effect was dependent on air temperature (significant light × air temperature interaction). We found no evidence that manipulating the color temperature of white LEDs would minimize the ecological impacts of the adoption of white LED lights. As such, large-scale adoption of energy-efficient white LED lighting for municipal and industrial use may exacerbate ecological impacts and potentially amplify phytosanitary pest infestations. Our findings highlight the urgent need for collaborative research between ecologists and electrical engineers to ensure that future developments in LED technology minimize their potential ecological effects.
Address Scion, P.O. Box 29-237, Fendalton, Christchurch, New Zealand
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ISSN 1051-0761 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 367
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Author Snyder, J.D.; Bullough, J.D.; Radetsky, L.C.
Title Innovative Roadway Light Source and Dye Combinations to Improve Visibility and Reduce Environmental Impacts. Type (up) Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication National Technical Information Service report Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Lighting Systems
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 444
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Author Zhou, H.; Hawkins, H.G.; Miles, J.D.
Title Guidelines for Freeway Lighting Curfews Type (up) Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Technical Report No. FHWA/TX-13/0-6645-1, Texas A&M Transportation Institute Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages á-72
Keywords Lighting Systems; Regulation
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 445
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Author Arnold, G.; Mellinger, D.; Markowitz, P.; Burke, M.; Lahar, D.
Title A Win-Win-Win for Municipal Street Lighting: Converting Two-Thirds of Vermont's Street Lights to LED by 2014. Type (up) Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Lighting Systems
Abstract Reducing energy costs and enhancing the nighttime environment with LED street lighting

is by now well understood. However, few municipalities and utilities have successfully taken

advantage of this opportunity to convert their street lighting operations to LEDs. Before a

system-wide conversion of existing street lights can occur, a utility must obtain the large amount

of required capital, identify appropriate LED street light equipment for their applications,

consider changes in utility rate structures, and design effective methods for recovering costs.

Using Vermont as a case study, this paper presents a partnership model among the statewide

energy efficiency utility, the state’s largest electric utilities, and several municipalities. The

model was designed to overcome the challenges to widespread LED street light conversion. By

2014, more than two-thirds of Vermont’s municipal street lights will be upgraded to LED

technology. The conversion will: (1) provide municipalities with better nighttime street lighting

and significant cost savings—at no additional capital expense to the municipalities, (2) deliver

8,000 MWh of cost-effective new savings to the energy efficiency utility, and (3) deliver

financially attractive returns for Vermont’s utilities. This win-win-win model is scalable and

replicable, and is now being considered in Massachusetts and Rhode Island
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 446
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