toggle visibility Search & Display Options

Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print
  Records Links
Author Gaston, K.J.; Bennie, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Demographic effects of artificial nighttime lighting on animal populations Type (up) Book Chapter
  Year 2014 Publication Environmental Reviews Abbreviated Journal Environ. Rev.  
  Volume 22 Issue 4 Pages 323-330  
  Keywords diurnal; lighting; night; nocturnal; light pollution; light at night; Photoperiodism; demography; demographics; population dynamics  
  Abstract Artificial lighting, especially but not exclusively through street lights, has transformed the nighttime environment in much of the world. Impacts have been identified across multiple levels of biological organization and process. The influences, however, on population dynamics, particularly through the combined effects on the key demographic rates (immigration, births, deaths, emigration) that determine where individual species occur and in what numbers, have not previously been well characterized. The majority of attention explicitly on demographic parameters to date has been placed on the attraction of organisms to lights, and thus effectively local immigration, the large numbers of individuals that can be involved, and then to some extent the mortality that can often result. Some of the most important influences of nighttime lighting, however, are likely more subtle and less immediately apparent to the human observer. Particularly significant are effects of nighttime lighting on demography that act through (i) circadian clocks and photoperiodism and thence on birth rates; (ii) time partitioning and thence on death rates; and (iii) immigration/emigration through constraining the movements of individuals amongst habitat networks, especially as a consequence of continuously lit linear features such as roads and footpaths. Good model organisms are required to enable the relative consequences of such effects to be effectively determined, and a wider consideration of the effects of artificial light at night is needed in demographic studies across a range of species.  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9EZ, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Canadian Science Publishing Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1181-8700 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 317  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author De Almeida, A.; Santos, B.; Paolo, B.; Quicheron, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Solid state lighting review – Potential and challenges in Europe Type (up) Book Chapter
  Year 2014 Publication Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Abbreviated Journal Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews  
  Volume 34 Issue Pages 30-48  
  Keywords Lighting; solid-state lighting; LED; lighting technology; review; Europe  
  Abstract According to IEA estimates, about 19% of the electricity used in the world is for lighting loads with a slightly smaller fraction used in the European Union (14%). Lighting was the first service offered by electric utilities and still continues to be one of the largest electrical end-uses. Most current lighting technologies can be vastly improved, and therefore lighting loads present a huge potential for electricity savings.

Solid State Lighting (SSL) is amongst the most energy-efficient and environmentally friendly lighting technology. SSL has already reached a high efficiency level (over 276 lm/W) at ever-decreasing costs. Additionally the lifetime of LED lamps is several times longer than discharge lamps. This paper presents an overview of the state of the art SSL technology trends.

SSL technology is evolving fast, which can bring many advantages to the lighting marketplace. However, there are still some market barriers that are hindering the high cost-effective potential of energy-efficient lighting from being achieved. This paper presents several strategies and recommendations in order to overcome existing barriers and promote a faster penetration of SSL. The estimated savings potential through the application of SSL lighting systems in the European Union (EU) is around 209 TWh, which translates into 77 million tonnes of CO2. The economic benefits translate into the equivalent annual electrical output of about 26 large power plants (1000 MW electric). Similar impacts, in terms of percentage savings, can be expected in other parts of the World.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1364-0321 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 319  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Schroer, S.; Hölker, F. url  doi
isbn  openurl
  Title Impact of Lighting on Flora and Fauna Type (up) Book Chapter
  Year 2016 Publication Handbook of Advanced Lighting Technology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-33  
  Keywords Ecology; Lighting; Artificial light at night; ALAN; Plants; Animals; review  
  Abstract Technology, especially artificial light at night (ALAN), often has unexpected impacts on the environment. This chapter addresses both the perception of light by various organisms and the impact of ALAN on flora and fauna. The responses to ALAN are subdivided into the effects of light intensity, color spectra, and duration and timing of illumination. The ways organisms perceive light can be as variable as the habitats they live in. ALAN often interferes with natural light information. It is rarely neutral and has significant impacts beyond human perception. For example, UV light reflection of generative plant parts or the direction of light is used by many organisms as information for foraging, finding spawning sites, or communication. Contemporary outdoor lighting often lacks sustainable planning, even though the protection of species, habitat, and human well-being could be improved by adopting simple technical measures. The increasing use of ALAN with high intensities in the blue part of the spectrum, e.g., fluorescent light and LEDs, is discussed as a critical trend. Blue light is a major circadian signal in higher vertebrates and can substantially impact the orientation of organisms such as numerous insect species. A better understanding of how various types and sources of artificial light, and how organisms perceive ALAN, will be an important step towards more sustainable lighting. Such knowledge is the basis for sustainable lighting planning and the development of solutions to protect biodiversity from the effects of outdoor lighting. Maps that describe the rapid changes in ALAN are urgently needed. In addition, measures are required to reduce the increasing use and intensity of ALAN in more remote areas as signaling thresholds in flora and fauna at night are often close to moonlight intensity and far below streetlight levels.  
  Address Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Müggelseedamm 310, 12587, Berlin, Germany; schroer(at)igb-berlin.de  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-319-00295-8 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1470  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Schroer, S.; Hölker, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light Pollution Reduction Type (up) Book Chapter
  Year 2014 Publication Handbook of Advanced Lighting Technology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords ligting technology; awareness; skyglow, lighting design  
  Abstract Artificial light at night is an irreplaceable technology for our society and its activities at nighttime. But this indispensable tool has detrimental side effects, which have only come to light in the past 10–20 years. This chapter reviews ways to implement technology in order to lower the impact of artificial light at night on nature and humans. Further, it provides guidelines for environmental protection and scientific approaches to reduce the increase in light pollution and discusses the urgent need for further research. Measures to prevent obtrusive light and unintentional trespass into homes and natural habitats are

mostly simple solutions like shielding luminaires and predominantly require awareness. Shades are another effective tool to reduce trespass from interior lights. Especially in greenhouses, the use of shades significantly reduces the contribution to skyglow. Artificial light should be switched off whenever it is not needed. Smart, flexible lighting systems can help to use artificial light with precision. The choice of the appropriate illumination has to be balanced by the needs for optimal visibility, human well-being, environmental conservation and protection of the night sky. For visibility, conditions comparable to bright moonlit nights (0.3 lx) are sufficient. Low-level streetlights that produce only 1–3 lx at the surface meet the requirement of facial cognition. Although this light level might be too low for road safety, a consideration of maximum illumination levels in street lighting is recommended. The spectral power distribution of illuminants can impact several environmental parameters. For example, illuminants emitting short wavelengths can sup- press melatonin in higher vertebrates (including humans), are attracting many insect species, and contribute in skyglow above average. Recent findings in different measures for energy efficiency of illuminants at scotopic or mesopic vision conditions compared to photopic conditions indicate that the assessment of lighting products needs fundamental revision. Further research is crucially needed to create refuges for light-sensitive species at night, to measure the impact of artificial light on nature, and also to monitor the improvements of light pollution-reducing measures. Decrees in various regions have helped to lower the impact of artificial light at night significantly. Measures to reduce the impact of artificial light at night need to be carefully balanced with the surrounding environment. Thoughtful guidelines are crucial to reducing the rapid increase in sky brightness worldwide. These guidelines need to be made accessible for decision makers especially in areas which require new light installations.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer International Publishing Place of Publication Editor Karlicek, Robert Sun, Ching-Chern Zissis, Georgis Ma, Ruiqing  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1569  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Fuller, G. (ed) pdf  openurl
  Title The Night Shift: Lighting and Nocturnal Strepsirrhine Care in Zoos Type (up) Book Whole
  Year 2013 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords zoos; light at night; circadian disruption; strepsirrhines; primates; lorises; pottos; lighting design  
  Abstract Over billions of years of evolution, light from the sun, moon, and stars has provided

organisms with reliable information about the passage of time. Photic cues entrain

the circadian system, allowing animals to perform behaviors critical for survival and

reproduction at optimal times. Modern artificial lighting has drastically altered

environmental light cues. Evidence is accumulating that exposure to light at night

(particularly blue wavelengths) from computer screens, urban light pollution, or as

an occupational hazard of night-shift work has major implications for human health.

Nocturnal animals are the shift workers of zoos; they are generally housed on

reversed light cycles so that daytime visitors can observe their active behaviors. As a

result, they are exposed to artificial light throughout their subjective night. The goal

of this investigation was to examine critically the care of nocturnal strepsirrhine

primates in North American zoos, focusing on lorises (Loris and Nycticebus spp.) and pottos (Perodicticus potto). The general hypothesis was that exhibit lighting design affects activity patterns and circadian physiology in nocturnal strepsirrhines. The

first specific aim was to assess the status of these populations. A multi-institutional husbandry survey revealed little consensus among zoos in lighting design, with both red and blue light commonly used for nocturnal illumination. A review of medical records also revealed high rates of neonate mortality. The second aim was to

develop methods for measuring the effects of exhibit lighting on behavior and

health. The use of actigraphy for automated activity monitoring was explored.

Methods were also developed for measuring salivary melatonin and cortisol as

indicators of circadian disruption. Finally, a multi-institutional study was conducted

comparing behavioral and endocrine responses to red and blue dark phase lighting.

These results showed greater activity levels in strepsirrhines housed under red light than blue. Salivary melatonin concentrations in pottos suggested that blue light

suppressed nocturnal melatonin production at higher intensities, but evidence for

circadian disruption was equivocal. These results add to the growing body of

evidence on the detrimental effects of blue light at night and are a step towards

empirical recommendations for nocturnal lighting design in zoos.
 
  Address Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University  
  Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor Fuller, G.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 327  
Permanent link to this record
Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print

Save Citations:
Export Records: