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Author Scott, R. url  openurl
  Title THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ROAD LIGHTING QUALITY AND ACCIDENT FREQUENCY – TRRL LABORATORY REPORT 929. Type Journal Article
  Year 1980 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (up) Issue Pages  
  Keywords Lighting; quality; accident rate; accident; frequency; luminance; glare; uniformity; urban area; daylight; darkness; surfacing; pedestrian  
  Abstract many studies have related changes in accident frequency to the presence of street lighting, and a few have examined its variation over a range of lighting quality, as measured by illuminance. this investigation attempts to find which of several measures of lighting (describing quantity – as represented by luminance or illuminance – uniformity and glare) most clearly explain variations in accident frequency. about 100 lit sites, almost all in built-up areas, were measured for lighting quality in dry-road conditions. the lighting variables measured were related to the dark:day ratios of accident frequency for the same sites. the strongest relationship found was that for average road surface luminance: in the range 0.5-2.0 candelas/m2, it is estimated that an increase of 1 cd/m2 is associated with a 35 per cent lower accident ratio. other measures of luminance and illuminance were also found to be related to accident ratio (and to each other), but not as clearly as was average road luminance, which is therefore the preferred explanatory variable. analysis of pedestrian and non-pedestrian accidents separately did not reveal a relationship between the former and lighting quality. in contrast, non-pedestrian accidents showed similar relationships to those for all accidents, with the addition of a possible relationship with overall uniformity of luminance.(a)  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 647  
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Author Walkling, A.; Schierz, C. url  openurl
  Title Comparison between the CIE and LITG Method for Minimizing Obtrusive Glare Caused by Bright Luminaires in the Field Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication In CIE 27th Session Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (up) Issue Pages 139–143  
  Keywords Lighting  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 650  
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Author Owen, D. url  openurl
  Title The Dark Side. Making war on light pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication The New Yorker Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (up) Issue Pages  
  Keywords Lighting  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 791  
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Author Saraiji, R,; Oommen, M.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dominant contrast as a metric for the lighting of pedestrians Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (up) Issue Pages  
  Keywords Vision; Lighting; Public Safety  
  Abstract CIE Publication 115 and ANSI/IESNA Recommended Practice 8-00 both use vertical illuminance 1.5 m above the ground as a design criterion for the lighting of pedestrians. While vertical illuminance has the advantage of being easy to calculate and measure, visibility is based primarily on target contrast. A central question related to the visibility of pedestrians is whether drivers need to see the whole pedestrian or can they infer the presence of a pedestrian by recognizing any part of the pedestrian’s shape. The objective of this work was to first explore various pedestrian contrast profiles that could exist and then to find a simplified approach to characterize pedestrian night-time visibility. The problem was addressed through theoretical analyses and computer simulations. Pedestrian contrast was found to be bipolar and dynamic. From the contrast profiles, we developed the concept of dominant contrast, which is defined as the contrast of any part of the pedestrian that provides the highest visibility. Dominant contrast was examined as a metric for street lighting design and night time visibility for (a) an unlit street with car headlights, (b) a lit street without car headlights and (c) a lit street with car headlights. Dominant contrast was found to be a viable metric for street lighting design and night time visibility studies.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 854  
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Author Hölker, F. url  openurl
  Title Naturverträgliche Stadtbeleuchtung und Vermeidung von Lichtverschmutzung Type Conference Article
  Year 2009 Publication Modernisierung der Stadtbeleuchtung. Tagungsdokumentation 05. November 2009. Berlin: NABU Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (up) Issue Pages 15-16  
  Keywords Lighting  
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  Publisher Place of Publication Editor Große Ruse E, Wachholz C  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 858  
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