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Author Ardavani, O.; Zerefos, S.; Doulos, L.T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Redesigning the exterior lighting as part of the urban landscape: The role of transgenic bioluminescent plants in mediterranean urban and suburban lighting environments Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication Journal of Cleaner Production Abbreviated Journal Journal of Cleaner Production  
  Volume 242 Issue Pages 118477  
  Keywords Plants; Lighting  
  Abstract This research discusses the feasibility of replacing or supporting artificial lighting with Transgenic Bioluminescent Plants (TBP), as a means of minimizing light pollution, reducing electrical energy consumption and de-carbonizing urban and suburban outdoor environments, creating sustainable conditions and enriching the quality of life. Until now, no information is given about the light output of any TBPs and the question “Are the TBPs capable of producing the necessary lighting levels for exterior lighting?” is unanswered. For this reason, a new methodology is proposed for selecting and analyzing the lighting output potential of transgenic plants ted for specific climatic conditions. This methodology considers growth and reduction factors, as well as a formulae for estimating the plants’ luminous output by performing light measurements. Results show that transgenic plants in medium growth can emit a median luminous flux of up to 57 lm, a value that can definitely support low lighting requirements when used in large numbers of plants. From the lighting measurements and calculations performed in this research, the light output of the TBPs for a typical road with 5m width was found equal to 2lx. The amount of plants required was 40 at each side of the road for every 30m of streets with P6 road class. The results show that the use of bioluminescent plants can actually contribute to the reduction of energy consumption, concerning only the lighting criterium, thus creating an enormous opportunity for a new state-of- the-art market and research that could potentially minimize CO2 emissions and light pollution, improve urban and suburban microclimate, mitigate the effects of climate change, as well as provide an alternative means of lighting affecting both outdoor lighting design and landscape planning in suburban and urban settings. Moreover, further research should be applied considering also other possible ecological impacts before applying TBPs for exterior lighting applications.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0959-6526 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2711  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Ogando-Martínez, A.; Troncoso-Pastoriza, F.; Eguía-Oller, P.; Granada-Álvarez, E.; Erkoreka, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Model Calibration Methodology to Assess the Actual Lighting Conditions of a Road Infrastructure Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication Infrastructures Abbreviated Journal Infrastructures  
  Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 2  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract Street lighting plays an important role in the comfort and safety of drivers and pedestrians, so the control and management of the lighting systems operation and consumption is an essential service for a city. In this document, a methodology is presented to calibrate lighting models in order to assess the lighting performance through simulation techniques. The objective of this calibration is to identify the maintenance factor of the street lamps, determine the real average luminance coefficient of the road pavement and adapt the reflection properties of the road material. The method is applied in three stages and is based on the use of Radiance and GenOpt software suits for the modeling, simulation, and calibration of lighting scenes. The proposed methodology achieves errors as low as 13% for the calculation of illuminance and luminance, evincing its potential to assess the actual lighting conditions of a road.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2412-3811 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2802  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Tabaka, P.; Rozga, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Influence of a Light Source Installed in a Luminaire of Opal Sphere Type on the Effect of Light Pollution Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication Energies Abbreviated Journal Energies  
  Volume 13 Issue 2 Pages 306  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract The article presents the results of the studies concerning the influence of a light source installed in luminaire of opal sphere type on the light pollution effect of the night sky. It is known from literature reports that the effect of light pollution is influenced by the spectral distribution of light. Although the influence of the spectral distribution has been widely studied from different perspectives, there is still a need to study this phenomenon—for example, from the point of view of the spectral reflection properties of the ground, on which the lanterns are installed. Hence, the above-mentioned aspect was considered in the authors’ investigations. The luminaire considered has been equipped with 20 different light sources, including the latest generation of lamps (light-emitting diodes, LEDs) as well as the conventional ones. With respect to these light sources, the measurements of light distribution and spectral distribution of emitted radiation of the luminaire were performed. Having these measurement data, the simulations were carried out using the DIALux software, and the calculations were made using the specially prepared calculation tool. On the basis of the results obtained in this way this was stated that the type of light source installed in the luminaire has a significant effect on the sky glow. An important factor affecting light pollution is not only the value of the luminous flux emitted upward but also the spectral characteristics of the emitted radiation, the impact of which is most noticeable. The conclusions from the studies indicate the next steps in the analysis of the light pollution effect. These steps will be focused on extended analysis of LEDs as modern and developed light sources.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1996-1073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2815  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Marchant, P.; Hale, J.D.; Sadler, J.P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Does changing to brighter road lighting improve road safety? Multilevel longitudinal analysis of road traffic collision frequency during the relighting of a UK city Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health Abbreviated Journal J. Epidemiol. Community Health  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Public Safety; traffic safety; Roadway lighting; road safety; road traffic collisions; United Kingdom  
  Abstract Background A step change in the night environment is taking place, with the large-scale installation of bright, broad-spectrum road lighting such as white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). One justification for this is a reduction in road traffic collisions (RTCs). This study aimed to estimate the effect of new lighting on personal injury RTCs within a large UK city.

Methods We analysed a 9-year time series of weekly RTC personal injury counts in 132 areas of the city using multilevel modelling. The RTC rate over a full 24-hour period was the primary outcome; darkness and daylight RTC rates were secondary. The background change in RTC rate was separated from the change associated with the number of newly installed bright lamps by including a polynomial underlying time trend for the logarithm of the mean number of collisions per week for each area. The study was based on a rigorous, predesigned and archived protocol.

Results Within-area coefficients for the broad lighting effect were positive; as the number of bright lamps in an area increased, so did the RTC rate. The estimate for the increase in the within-area 24-hour RTC rate is 11% (95% CI 2% to 20%). The estimate of darkness-only RTCs is 16% (95% CI 2% to 32%). If the effect of lighting on darkness RTC rate is adjusted by that for daylight, one obtains 4% (95% CI −12% to +23%).

Conclusion No evidence was found for bright lamps leading to an improvement in road safety in any of the analyses. For this city, introducing brighter road lighting may have compromised safety rather than reducing harm.
 
  Address Room 221, Leighton Hall, Leeds Beckett University, Headingley Campus, Leeds LS1 3HE, UK; p.marchant(at) leedsbeckett.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher BML Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2835  
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Author Benito, B.; Guillamón, M.-D.; Martínez-Córdoba, P.-J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Determinants of efficiency improvement in the Spanish public lighting sector Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication Utilities Policy Abbreviated Journal Utilities Policy  
  Volume 64 Issue Pages 101026  
  Keywords Lighting; Economics  
  Abstract This research analyzes the factors that can improve the efficiency of public lighting. First, the annual and inter-annual efficiency levels are calculated. Second, the effects of a set of environmental variables on these efficiency levels are checked with a truncated regression model. The results show that public management is more efficient than private or mixed management. Higher tourism, stronger local governments, and more hours of sunlight appear to improve efficiency. Local governments with the highest budgetary revenues and the most urbanized area experience the greatest improvement in efficiency year after year.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0957-1787 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2840  
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