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Author Kempenaers, B.; Borgstrom, P.; Loes, P.; Schlicht, E.; Valcu, M.
Title Artificial night lighting affects dawn song, extra-pair siring success, and lay date in songbirds Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol
Volume 20 Issue 19 Pages 1735-1739
Keywords Animals; Environmental Pollution; Female; Light; *Lighting; Male; *Reproduction; Sexual Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Songbirds/*physiology; Time Factors; *Vocalization, Animal
Abstract (up) Associated with a continued global increase in urbanization, anthropogenic light pollution is an important problem. However, our understanding of the ecological consequences of light pollution is limited. We investigated effects of artificial night lighting on dawn song in five common forest-breeding songbirds. In four species, males near street lights started singing significantly earlier at dawn than males elsewhere in the forest, and this effect was stronger in naturally earlier-singing species. We compared reproductive behavior of blue tits breeding in edge territories with and without street lights to that of blue tits breeding in central territories over a 7 year period. Under the influence of street lights, females started egg laying on average 1.5 days earlier. Males occupying edge territories with street lights were twice as successful in obtaining extra-pair mates than their close neighbors or than males occupying central forest territories. Artificial night lighting affected both age classes but had a stronger effect on yearling males. Our findings indicate that light pollution has substantial effects on the timing of reproductive behavior and on individual mating patterns. It may have important evolutionary consequences by changing the information embedded in previously reliable quality-indicator traits.
Address Department of Behavioural Ecology and Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Eberhard-Gwinner-Strasse, 82319 Seewiesen, Germany. b.kempenaers@orn.mpg.de
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:20850324 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 51
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Author Schmoll, C.; Khan, A.; Aspinall, P.; Goudie, C.; Koay, P.; Tendo, C.; Cameron, J.; Roe, J.; Deary, I.; Dhillon, B.
Title New light for old eyes: comparing melanopsin-mediated non-visual benefits of blue-light and UV-blocking intraocular lenses Type
Year 2014 Publication The British Journal of Ophthalmology Abbreviated Journal Br J Ophthalmol
Volume 98 Issue 1 Pages 124-128
Keywords Aged; Cataract/*physiopathology; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Cognition/*physiology; Female; Humans; Lens Implantation, Intraocular; *Lenses, Intraocular; Light; Male; Phacoemulsification; Prospective Studies; Questionnaires; Reaction Time/physiology; Regression Analysis; Rod Opsins/*physiology; Sleep/*physiology; Physiology; Retina; blue blocker; blue light
Abstract (up) BACKGROUND/AIMS: Melanopsin-expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells form a blue-light-sensitive non-visual system mediating diverse physiological effects including circadian entrainment and cognitive alertness. Reduced blue wavelength retinal illumination through cataract formation is thought to blunt these responses while cataract surgery and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation have been shown to have beneficial effects on sleep and cognition. We aimed to use the reaction time (RT) task and the Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS) as a validated objective platform to compare non-visual benefits of UV- and blue-blocking IOLs. METHODS: Patients were prospectively randomised to receive either a UV- or blue-blocking IOL, performing an RT test and ESS questionnaire before and after surgery. Optical blurring at the second test controlled for visual improvement. Non-operative age-matched controls were recruited for comparison. RESULTS: 80 participants completed the study. Those undergoing first-eye phacoemulsification demonstrated significant improvements in RT over control (p=0.001) and second-eye surgery patients (p=0.03). Moreover, reduced daytime sleepiness was measured by ESS for the first-eye surgery group (p=0.008) but not for the second-eye group (p=0.09). Choice of UV- or blue-blocking IOL made no significant difference to magnitude of cognitive improvement (p=0.272). CONCLUSIONS: Phacoemulsification, particularly first-eye surgery, has a strong positive effect on cognition and daytime alertness, regardless of IOL type.
Address Princess Alexandra Eye Hospital, , Edinburgh, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0007-1161 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:24158845 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 342
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Author Figueiro, M.G.; Bierman, A.; Plitnick, B.; Rea, M.S.
Title Preliminary evidence that both blue and red light can induce alertness at night Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication BMC Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal BMC Neurosci
Volume 10 Issue Pages 105
Keywords Adult; Alpha Rhythm; Analysis of Variance; Beta Rhythm; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Cornea/physiology; Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation; Electrocardiography; Female; Humans; *Light; Male; Melatonin/secretion; Middle Aged; *Photic Stimulation; Psychomotor Performance; Radioimmunoassay; Salivary Glands/secretion; Wakefulness/*physiology; physiology of vision; blue light; red light
Abstract (up) BACKGROUND: A variety of studies have demonstrated that retinal light exposure can increase alertness at night. It is now well accepted that the circadian system is maximally sensitive to short-wavelength (blue) light and is quite insensitive to long-wavelength (red) light. Retinal exposures to blue light at night have been recently shown to impact alertness, implicating participation by the circadian system. The present experiment was conducted to look at the impact of both blue and red light at two different levels on nocturnal alertness. Visually effective but moderate levels of red light are ineffective for stimulating the circadian system. If it were shown that a moderate level of red light impacts alertness, it would have had to occur via a pathway other than through the circadian system. METHODS: Fourteen subjects participated in a within-subject two-night study, where each participant was exposed to four experimental lighting conditions. Each night each subject was presented a high (40 lx at the cornea) and a low (10 lx at the cornea) diffuse light exposure condition of the same spectrum (blue, lambda(max) = 470 nm, or red, lambda(max) = 630 nm). The presentation order of the light levels was counterbalanced across sessions for a given subject; light spectra were counterbalanced across subjects within sessions. Prior to each lighting condition, subjects remained in the dark (< 1 lx at the cornea) for 60 minutes. Electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements, electrocardiogram (ECG), psychomotor vigilance tests (PVT), self-reports of sleepiness, and saliva samples for melatonin assays were collected at the end of each dark and light periods. RESULTS: Exposures to red and to blue light resulted in increased beta and reduced alpha power relative to preceding dark conditions. Exposures to high, but not low, levels of red and of blue light significantly increased heart rate relative to the dark condition. Performance and sleepiness ratings were not strongly affected by the lighting conditions. Only the higher level of blue light resulted in a reduction in melatonin levels relative to the other lighting conditions. CONCLUSION: These results support previous findings that alertness may be mediated by the circadian system, but it does not seem to be the only light-sensitive pathway that can affect alertness at night.
Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USA. figuem@rpi.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1471-2202 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:19712442; PMCID:PMC2744917 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 285
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Author Peplonska, B.; Bukowska, A.; Sobala, W.; Reszka, E.; Gromadzinska, J.; Wasowicz, W.; Lie, J.A.; Kjuus, H.; Ursin, G.
Title Rotating night shift work and mammographic density Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology Abbreviated Journal Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev
Volume 21 Issue 7 Pages 1028-1037
Keywords Adult; Breast/*pathology; Breast Neoplasms/*etiology/*pathology; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Humans; Melatonin/urine; Middle Aged; *Midwifery; *Nursing Staff; Questionnaires; Risk Factors; *Work Schedule Tolerance; oncogenesis
Abstract (up) BACKGROUND: An increased risk of breast cancer has been observed in night shift workers. Exposure to artificial light at night and disruption of the endogenous circadian rhythm with suppression of the melatonin synthesis have been suggested mechanisms. We investigated the hypothesis that rotating night shift work is associated with mammographic density. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study on the association between rotating night shift work characteristics, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (MT6s) creatinine adjusted in a spot morning urine sample, and a computer-assisted measure of mammographic density in 640 nurses and midwives ages 40 to 60 years. The associations were evaluated using regression models adjusted for age, body mass index, menopausal status, age at menopause, age at menarche, smoking, and the calendar season of the year when mammography was conducted. RESULTS: The adjusted means of percentage of mammographic density and absolute density were slightly higher among women working rotating night shifts but not statistically significant [percentage of mammographic density = 23.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI), 21.9%-25.4% vs. 22.5%, 95% CI, 20.8%-24.3%; absolute density = 23.9 cm(2), 95% CI, 21.4-26.4 cm(2) vs. 21.8 cm(2), 95% CI, 19.4-24.3 cm(2) in rotating night shift and day shift nurses, respectively). There were no significant associations between the current or cumulative rotating night shift work exposure metrics and mammographic density. No association was observed between morning MT6s and mammographic density. CONCLUSIONS: The hypothesis on the link between rotating night shift work, melatonin synthesis disruption, and mammographic density is not supported by the results of the present study. IMPACT: It is unlikely that the development of breast cancer in nurses working rotating night shifts is mediated by an increase in mammographic density.
Address Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland. beatap@imp.lodz.pl
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1055-9965 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:22539602 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 159
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Author Stevens, R.G.
Title Light-at-night, circadian disruption and breast cancer: assessment of existing evidence Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication International Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Epidemiol
Volume 38 Issue 4 Pages 963-970
Keywords Human Health; Animals; Blindness/complications/epidemiology; Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology/*etiology/metabolism; Chronobiology Disorders/*complications/epidemiology/metabolism; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Disease Models, Animal; Female; Humans; Light Signal Transduction/physiology; Lighting/adverse effects; Melatonin/biosynthesis; Sleep/physiology; Time Factors; *Work Schedule Tolerance
Abstract (up) BACKGROUND: Breast cancer incidence is increasing globally for largely unknown reasons. The possibility that a portion of the breast cancer burden might be explained by the introduction and increasing use of electricity to light the night was suggested >20 years ago. METHODS: The theory is based on nocturnal light-induced disruption of circadian rhythms, notably reduction of melatonin synthesis. It has formed the basis for a series of predictions including that non-day shift work would increase risk, blind women would be at lower risk, long sleep duration would lower risk and community nighttime light level would co-distribute with breast cancer incidence on the population level. RESULTS: Accumulation of epidemiological evidence has accelerated in recent years, reflected in an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classification of shift work as a probable human carcinogen (2A). There is also a strong rodent model in support of the light-at-night (LAN) idea. CONCLUSION: If a consensus eventually emerges that LAN does increase risk, then the mechanisms for the effect are important to elucidate for intervention and mitigation. The basic understanding of phototransduction for the circadian system, and of the molecular genetics of circadian rhythm generation are both advancing rapidly, and will provide for the development of lighting technologies at home and at work that minimize circadian disruption, while maintaining visual efficiency and aesthetics. In the interim, there are strategies now available to reduce the potential for circadian disruption, which include extending the daily dark period, appreciate nocturnal awakening in the dark, using dim red light for nighttime necessities, and unless recommended by a physician, not taking melatonin tablets.
Address Department of Community Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030-6325, USA. bugs@uchc.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0300-5771 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:19380369; PMCID:PMC2734067 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 527
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