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Author Bennett, S.; Alpert, M.; Kubulins, V.; Hansler, R.L.
Title Use of modified spectacles and light bulbs to block blue light at night may prevent postpartum depression Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Medical Hypotheses Abbreviated Journal Med Hypotheses
Volume 73 Issue 2 Pages 251-253
Keywords Depression, Postpartum/*prevention & control; *Eyeglasses; Female; Humans; *Lighting; blue light; light therapy; blue blocker
Abstract In 2001 it was discovered that exposing the eyes to light in the blue end of the visible spectrum suppresses the production of the sleep hormone, melatonin. New mothers need to get up during the night to care for their babies. This is the time when melatonin is normally flowing. Exposing their eyes to light can cut off the flow. It may also reset their circadian (internal) clock. On subsequent nights the melatonin may not begin flowing at the normal time making it difficult to fall asleep. Over time, disruption of the circadian rhythm plus sleep deprivation may result in depression. Women suffering postpartum depression were enrolled in a small clinical trial. Some were provided with glasses and light bulbs that block blue light. Others were equipped with glasses and light bulbs that looked colored but did not block the rays causing melatonin suppression. Those with the “real glasses” recovered somewhat more quickly than those with the placebo glasses and light bulbs. The hypothesis that should be tested in large scale clinical trials is that the risk of postpartum depression can be reduced when a new mother avoids exposing her eyes to blue light when she gets up at night to care for her baby. In the meantime, all new mothers may benefit from using glasses and light bulbs that block blue light when getting up at night to care for their babies.
Address Postpartum Support, International P.O. Box 60931, Santa Barbara, CA 93160, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0306-9877 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) PMID:19329259 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 296
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Author Stevens, R.G.
Title Light-at-night, circadian disruption and breast cancer: assessment of existing evidence Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication International Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Epidemiol
Volume 38 Issue 4 Pages 963-970
Keywords Human Health; Animals; Blindness/complications/epidemiology; Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology/*etiology/metabolism; Chronobiology Disorders/*complications/epidemiology/metabolism; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Disease Models, Animal; Female; Humans; Light Signal Transduction/physiology; Lighting/adverse effects; Melatonin/biosynthesis; Sleep/physiology; Time Factors; *Work Schedule Tolerance
Abstract BACKGROUND: Breast cancer incidence is increasing globally for largely unknown reasons. The possibility that a portion of the breast cancer burden might be explained by the introduction and increasing use of electricity to light the night was suggested >20 years ago. METHODS: The theory is based on nocturnal light-induced disruption of circadian rhythms, notably reduction of melatonin synthesis. It has formed the basis for a series of predictions including that non-day shift work would increase risk, blind women would be at lower risk, long sleep duration would lower risk and community nighttime light level would co-distribute with breast cancer incidence on the population level. RESULTS: Accumulation of epidemiological evidence has accelerated in recent years, reflected in an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classification of shift work as a probable human carcinogen (2A). There is also a strong rodent model in support of the light-at-night (LAN) idea. CONCLUSION: If a consensus eventually emerges that LAN does increase risk, then the mechanisms for the effect are important to elucidate for intervention and mitigation. The basic understanding of phototransduction for the circadian system, and of the molecular genetics of circadian rhythm generation are both advancing rapidly, and will provide for the development of lighting technologies at home and at work that minimize circadian disruption, while maintaining visual efficiency and aesthetics. In the interim, there are strategies now available to reduce the potential for circadian disruption, which include extending the daily dark period, appreciate nocturnal awakening in the dark, using dim red light for nighttime necessities, and unless recommended by a physician, not taking melatonin tablets.
Address Department of Community Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030-6325, USA. bugs@uchc.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0300-5771 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) PMID:19380369; PMCID:PMC2734067 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 527
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Author Kanikowska, D.; Sugenoya, J.; Sato, M.; Shimizu, Y.; Inukai, Y.; Nishimura, N.; Iwase, S.
Title Seasonal variation in blood concentrations of interleukin-6, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, metabolites of catecholamine and cortisol in healthy volunteers Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication International Journal of Biometeorology Abbreviated Journal Int J Biometeorol
Volume 53 Issue 6 Pages 479-485
Keywords Human Health; Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/*blood; Catecholamines/*blood; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Humans; Hydrocortisone/*blood; Interleukin-6/*blood; Male; Reference Values; *Seasons; Young Adult
Abstract We investigated seasonal changes in blood concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), metabolites of catecholamine (VMA, HVA, and 5-HIAA) and cortisol in humans. Eight volunteers were investigated at four times during the year (February, May, August and October) at latitude 35 degrees N. The mean ambient temperature at the collection periods was higher in the order of summer > autumn approximately spring > winter. Changes in mood were also monitored by a profile of mood states (POMS) questionnaire. The concentration of IL-6 was significantly higher in winter and summer than in spring and autumn. The concentrations of ACTH, HVA and VMA were significantly higher in summer. No seasonal variation was detected in cortisol. There were significant differences among the seasons in subscale tension and anger in the POMS questionnaire; the tension subscale showed significant differences between spring and autumn, with a higher score in spring. The results demonstrate that Il-6, ACTH, HVA and VMA exhibit statistically significant seasonal rhythms, which might have important diagnostic and therapeutic implications.
Address Department of Physiology, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1195, Japan. dkanikowska@hotmail.com
Corporate Author Thesis
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0020-7128 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) PMID:19506914 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 768
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Author Lerchl, A.; Schindler, C.; Eichhorn, K.; Kley, F.; Erren, T.C.
Title Indirect blue light does not suppress nocturnal salivary melatonin in humans in an automobile setting Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Journal of Pineal Research Abbreviated Journal J Pineal Res
Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 143-146
Keywords Human Health; Adolescent; Adult; *Automobiles; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Humans; *Lighting; Male; Melatonin/metabolism/*secretion; Salivary Glands/*secretion; Statistics, Nonparametric
Abstract In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified shift work that involves circadian disruption as being probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A). In this context, light exposure during the night plays a key role because it can suppress nocturnal melatonin levels when exposures exceed a certain threshold. Blue light around 464 nm is most effective in suppressing melatonin because of the spectral sensitivity of melanopsin, a recently discovered photopigment in retinal ganglion cells; the axons of these cells project to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, a circadian master clock in the brain. Due to advances in light technologies, normal tungsten light bulbs are being replaced by light-emitting diodes which produce quasi-monochromatic or white light. The objective of this study was to assess whether the light-melanopsin-melatonin axis might be affected in automobiles at night which employ the new generation diodes. To this end, we have tested in an experimental automobile setting whether indirect blue light (lambda(max) = 465 nm) at an intensity of 0.22 or 1.25 lx can suppress salivary melatonin levels in 12 male volunteers (age range 17-27 years) who served as their own controls. Daytime levels were low (2.7 +/- 0.5 pg/mL), and night-time levels without light exposure were high (14.5 +/- 1.1 pg/mL), as expected. Low-intensity light exposures had no significant effect on melatonin levels (0.22 lx: 17.2 +/- 2.8 pg/mL; P > 0.05; 1.25 lx: 12.6 +/- 2.0 pg/mL; P > 0.05). It is concluded that indirect blue light exposures in automobiles up to 1.25 lx do not cause unintentional chronodisruption via melatonin suppression.
Address School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University, D-28759 Bremen, Germany. a.lerchl@jacobs-university.de
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0742-3098 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) PMID:19555449 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 777
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Author Fonken, L.K.; Finy, M.S.; Walton, J.C.; Weil, Z.M.; Workman, J.L.; Ross, J.; Nelson, R.J.
Title Influence of light at night on murine anxiety- and depressive-like responses Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Behavioural Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Behav Brain Res
Volume 205 Issue 2 Pages 349-354
Keywords Human Health; Animals; Anxiety/*physiopathology; Corticosterone/blood; Depression/*physiopathology; Dietary Sucrose/administration & dosage; Drinking Behavior/physiology; Light/*adverse effects; Lighting; Locomotion/physiology; Male; Maze Learning; Mice; Neuropsychological Tests; Organ Size; Photic Stimulation; *Photoperiod; Random Allocation; Swimming; Testis/pathology
Abstract Individuals are increasingly exposed to light at night. Exposure to constant light (LL) disrupts circadian rhythms of locomotor activity, body temperature, hormones, and the sleep-wake cycle in animals. Other behavioural responses to LL have been reported, but are inconsistent. The present experiment sought to determine whether LL produces changes in affective responses and whether behavioural changes are mediated by alterations in glucocorticoid concentrations. Relative to conspecifics maintained in a light/dark cycle (LD, 16:8 light/dark), male Swiss-Webster mice exposed to LL for three weeks increased depressive-like behavioural responses as evaluated by the forced swim test and sucrose anhedonia. Furthermore, providing a light escape tube reversed the effects of LL in the forced swim test. LL mice displayed reduced anxiety as evaluated by the open field and elevated-plus maze. Glucocorticoid concentrations were reduced in the LL group suggesting that the affective behavioural responses to LL are not the result of elevated corticosterone. Additionally, mice housed in LD with a clear tube displayed increased paired testes mass as compared to LL mice. Taken together, these data provide evidence that exposure to unnatural lighting can induce significant changes in affect, increasing depressive-like and decreasing anxiety-like responses.
Address Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Fonken.1@osu.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0166-4328 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) PMID:19591880 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 749
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