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Author Grundy, A.; Richardson, H.; Burstyn, I.; Lohrisch, C.; SenGupta, S.K.; Lai, A.S.; Lee, D.; Spinelli, J.J.; Aronson, K.J.
Title Increased risk of breast cancer associated with long-term shift work in Canada Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Occupational and Environmental Medicine Abbreviated Journal Occup Environ Med
Volume 70 Issue 12 Pages 831-838
Keywords Human Health; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology/*etiology/metabolism; British Columbia/epidemiology; Case-Control Studies; Female; Humans; Menopause; Middle Aged; Occupational Diseases/*epidemiology; Ontario/epidemiology; Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism; Receptors, Progesterone/metabolism; Risk Factors; Tumor Markers, Biological/metabolism; Work Schedule Tolerance/*physiology; Young Adult
Abstract OBJECTIVES: Long-term night work has been suggested as a risk factor for breast cancer; however, additional studies with more comprehensive methods of exposure assessment to capture the diversity of shift patterns are needed. As well, few previous studies have considered the role of hormone receptor subtype. METHODS: Relationships between night shift work and breast cancer were examined among 1134 breast cancer cases and 1179 controls, frequency-matched by age in Vancouver, British Columbia, and Kingston, Ontario. Self-reported lifetime occupational histories were assessed for night shift work, and hormone receptor status obtained from tumour pathology records. RESULTS: With approximately one-third of cases and controls ever employed in night shift work, associations with duration demonstrated no relationship between either 0-14 or 15-29 years, while an association was apparent for >/=30 years (OR=2.21, 95% CI 1.14 to 4.31). This association with long-term night shift work is robust to alternative definitions of prolonged shift work, with similar results for both health and non-health care workers. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term night shift work in a diverse mix of occupations is associated with increased breast cancer risk and not limited to nurses, as in most previous studies.
Address Department of Public Health Sciences and Queen's Cancer Research Institute, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1351-0711 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23817841 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial (down) 757
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Author Foster, R.G.; Roenneberg, T.
Title Human responses to the geophysical daily, annual and lunar cycles Type Journal Article
Year 2008 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol
Volume 18 Issue 17 Pages R784-R794
Keywords Human Health; Biological Clocks; Birth Rate; Circadian Rhythm; Death; Female; Human Activities; Humans; Male; Moon; *Periodicity; Photoperiod; Seasons; Sexual Behavior; Sleep
Abstract Collectively the daily, seasonal, lunar and tidal geophysical cycles regulate much of the temporal biology of life on Earth. The increasing isolation of human societies from these geophysical cycles, as a result of improved living conditions, high-quality nutrition and 24/7 working practices, have led many to believe that human biology functions independently of them. Yet recent studies have highlighted the dominant role that our circadian clock plays in the organisation of 24 hour patterns of behaviour and physiology. Preferred wake and sleep times are to a large extent driven by an endogenous temporal program that uses sunlight as an entraining cue. The alarm clock can drive human activity rhythms but has little direct effect on our endogenous 24 hour physiology. In many situations, our biology and our society appear to be in serious opposition, and the damaging consequences to our health under these circumstances are increasingly recognised. The seasons dominate the lives of non-equatorial species, and until recently, they also had a marked influence on much of human biology. Despite human isolation from seasonal changes in temperature, food and photoperiod in the industrialised nations, the seasons still appear to have a small, but significant, impact upon when individuals are born and many aspects of health. The seasonal changes that modulate our biology, and how these factors might interact with the social and metabolic status of the individual to drive seasonal effects, are still poorly understood. Lunar cycles had, and continue to have, an influence upon human culture, though despite a persistent belief that our mental health and other behaviours are modulated by the phase of the moon, there is no solid evidence that human biology is in any way regulated by the lunar cycle.
Address Circadian and Visual Neuroscience, Nuffield Laboratory of Ophthalmology, University of Oxford, Levels 5 & 6 West Wing, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. russell.foster@eye.ox.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:18786384 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial (down) 752
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Author Fonken, L.K.; Finy, M.S.; Walton, J.C.; Weil, Z.M.; Workman, J.L.; Ross, J.; Nelson, R.J.
Title Influence of light at night on murine anxiety- and depressive-like responses Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Behavioural Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Behav Brain Res
Volume 205 Issue 2 Pages 349-354
Keywords Human Health; Animals; Anxiety/*physiopathology; Corticosterone/blood; Depression/*physiopathology; Dietary Sucrose/administration & dosage; Drinking Behavior/physiology; Light/*adverse effects; Lighting; Locomotion/physiology; Male; Maze Learning; Mice; Neuropsychological Tests; Organ Size; Photic Stimulation; *Photoperiod; Random Allocation; Swimming; Testis/pathology
Abstract Individuals are increasingly exposed to light at night. Exposure to constant light (LL) disrupts circadian rhythms of locomotor activity, body temperature, hormones, and the sleep-wake cycle in animals. Other behavioural responses to LL have been reported, but are inconsistent. The present experiment sought to determine whether LL produces changes in affective responses and whether behavioural changes are mediated by alterations in glucocorticoid concentrations. Relative to conspecifics maintained in a light/dark cycle (LD, 16:8 light/dark), male Swiss-Webster mice exposed to LL for three weeks increased depressive-like behavioural responses as evaluated by the forced swim test and sucrose anhedonia. Furthermore, providing a light escape tube reversed the effects of LL in the forced swim test. LL mice displayed reduced anxiety as evaluated by the open field and elevated-plus maze. Glucocorticoid concentrations were reduced in the LL group suggesting that the affective behavioural responses to LL are not the result of elevated corticosterone. Additionally, mice housed in LD with a clear tube displayed increased paired testes mass as compared to LL mice. Taken together, these data provide evidence that exposure to unnatural lighting can induce significant changes in affect, increasing depressive-like and decreasing anxiety-like responses.
Address Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Fonken.1@osu.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0166-4328 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:19591880 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial (down) 749
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Author Filipski, E.; Subramanian, P.; Carriere, J.; Guettier, C.; Barbason, H.; Levi, F.
Title Circadian disruption accelerates liver carcinogenesis in mice Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Mutation Research Abbreviated Journal Mutat Res
Volume 680 Issue 1-2 Pages 95-105
Keywords Human Health; Animals; Alanine Transaminase/blood; Animals; Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood; Bile Duct Neoplasms/chemically induced/pathology; Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic/drug effects/pathology; Body Weight/drug effects; Carcinogens/administration & dosage/*toxicity; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/chemically induced/pathology; Cholangiocarcinoma/chemically induced/pathology; Circadian Rhythm/*drug effects; Diethylnitrosamine/administration & dosage/*toxicity; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Injections, Intraperitoneal; Liver/drug effects/pathology; Liver Neoplasms/blood/*chemically induced/pathology; Male; Mice; Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/chemically induced/pathology; Sarcoma/chemically induced/pathology; Time Factors
Abstract BACKGROUND: The circadian timing system rhythmically controls behavior, physiology, cellular proliferation and xenobiotic metabolism over the 24-h period. The suprachiasmatic nuclei in the hypothalamus coordinate the molecular clocks in most mammalian cells through an array of circadian physiological rhythms including rest-activity, body temperature, feeding patterns and hormonal secretions. As a result, shift work that involves circadian disruption is probably carcinogenic in humans. In experimental models, chronic jet-lag (CJL) suppresses rest-activity and body temperature rhythms and accelerates growth of two transplantable tumors in mice. CJL also suppresses or significantly alters the expression rhythms of clock genes in liver and tumors. Circadian clock disruption from CJL downregulates p53 and upregulates c-Myc, thus favoring cellular proliferation. Here, we investigate the role of CJL as a tumor promoter in mice exposed to the hepatic carcinogen, diethylnitrosamine (DEN). METHODS: In experiment 1 (Exp 1), the dose-dependent carcinogenicity of chronic intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DEN was explored in mice. In Exp 2, mice received DEN at 10 mg/kg/day (cumulative dose: 243 mg/kg), then were randomized to remain in a photoperiodic regimen where 12 h of light alternates with 12 h of darkness (LD 12:12) or to be submitted to CJL (8-h advance of light onset every 2 days). Rest-activity and body temperature were monitored. Serum liver enzymes were determined repeatedly. Mice were sacrificed and examined for neoplastic lesions at 10 months. RESULTS: In Exp 1, DEN produced liver cancers in all the mice receiving 10 mg/kg/day. In Exp 2, mice on CJL had increased mean plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase and more liver tumors as compared to LD mice at approximately 10 months (p = 0.005 and 0.028, respectively). The mean diameter of the largest liver tumor was twice as large in CJL vs LD mice (8.5 vs 4.4 mm, p = 0.027). In LD, a single histologic tumor type per liver was observed. In CJL, up to four different types were associated in the same liver (hepatocellular- or cholangio-carcinomas, sarcomas or mixed tumors). DEN itself markedly disrupted the circadian rhythms in rest-activity and body temperature in all the mice. DEN-induced disruption was prolonged for >or= 3 months by CJL exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The association of circadian disruption with chronic DEN exposure suggests that circadian clocks actively control the mechanisms of liver carcinogenesis in mice. Persistent circadian coordination may further be critical for slowing down and/or reverting cancer development after carcinogen exposure.
Address INSERM, U776 Rythmes Biologiques et Cancers, Hopital Paul Brousse, Villejuif F-94807, France
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0027-5107 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:19833225 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial (down) 747
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Author Czeisler, C.A.; Shanahan, T.L.; Klerman, E.B.; Martens, H.; Brotman, D.J.; Emens, J.S.; Klein, T.; Rizzo, J.F. 3rd
Title Suppression of melatonin secretion in some blind patients by exposure to bright light Type Journal Article
Year 1995 Publication The New England Journal of Medicine Abbreviated Journal N Engl J Med
Volume 332 Issue 1 Pages 6-11
Keywords Human Health; Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Blindness/etiology/*physiopathology; Circadian Rhythm; Female; Humans; *Light; Male; Melatonin/blood/*secretion; Middle Aged; Photic Stimulation; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/physiopathology; Visual Perception
Abstract BACKGROUND: Complete blindness generally results in the loss of synchronization of circadian rhythms to the 24-hour day and in recurrent insomnia. However, some blind patients maintain circadian entrainment. We undertook this study to determine whether some blind patients' eyes convey sufficient photic information to entrain the hypothalamic circadian pacemaker and suppress melatonin secretion, despite an apparently complete loss of visual function. METHODS: We evaluated the input of light to the circadian pacemaker by testing the ability of bright light to decrease plasma melatonin concentrations in 11 blind patients with no conscious perception of light and in 6 normal subjects. We also evaluated circadian entrainment over time in the blind patients. RESULTS: Plasma melatonin concentrations decreased during exposure to bright light in three sightless patients by an average (+/- SD) of 69 +/- 21 percent and in the normal subjects by an average of 66 +/- 15 percent. When two of these blind patients were tested with their eyes covered during exposure to light, plasma melatonin did not decrease. The three blind patients reported no difficulty sleeping and maintained apparent circadian entrainment to the 24-hour day. Plasma melatonin concentrations did not decrease during exposure to bright light in seven of the remaining blind patients; in the eighth, plasma melatonin was undetectable. These eight patients reported a history of insomnia, and in four the circadian temperature rhythm was not entrained to the 24-hour day. CONCLUSIONS: The visual subsystem that mediates light-induced suppression of melatonin secretion remains functionally intact in some sightless patients. The absence of photic input to the circadian system thus constitutes a distinct form of blindness, associated with periodic insomnia, that afflicts most but not all patients with no conscious perception of light.
Address Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0028-4793 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:7990870 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial (down) 732
Permanent link to this record