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Author LeGates, T.A.; Altimus, C.M.; Wang, H.; Lee, H.-K.; Yang, S.; Zhao, H.; Kirkwood, A.; Weber, E.T.; Hattar, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Aberrant light directly impairs mood and learning through melanopsin-expressing neurons Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 491 Issue 7425 Pages 594-598  
  Keywords Affect/drug effects/physiology/*radiation effects; Animals; Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology; Body Temperature Regulation/physiology/radiation effects; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Cognition/drug effects/physiology/radiation effects; Corticosterone/metabolism; Depression/etiology/physiopathology; Desipramine/pharmacology; Fluoxetine/pharmacology; Learning/drug effects/physiology/*radiation effects; *Light; Long-Term Potentiation/drug effects; Male; Memory/physiology/radiation effects; Mice; Photoperiod; Retinal Ganglion Cells/drug effects/*metabolism/*radiation effects; *Rod Opsins/analysis; Sleep/physiology; Wakefulness/physiology  
  Abstract The daily solar cycle allows organisms to synchronize their circadian rhythms and sleep-wake cycles to the correct temporal niche. Changes in day-length, shift-work, and transmeridian travel lead to mood alterations and cognitive function deficits. Sleep deprivation and circadian disruption underlie mood and cognitive disorders associated with irregular light schedules. Whether irregular light schedules directly affect mood and cognitive functions in the context of normal sleep and circadian rhythms remains unclear. Here we show, using an aberrant light cycle that neither changes the amount and architecture of sleep nor causes changes in the circadian timing system, that light directly regulates mood-related behaviours and cognitive functions in mice. Animals exposed to the aberrant light cycle maintain daily corticosterone rhythms, but the overall levels of corticosterone are increased. Despite normal circadian and sleep structures, these animals show increased depression-like behaviours and impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation and learning. Administration of the antidepressant drugs fluoxetine or desipramine restores learning in mice exposed to the aberrant light cycle, suggesting that the mood deficit precedes the learning impairments. To determine the retinal circuits underlying this impairment of mood and learning, we examined the behavioural consequences of this light cycle in animals that lack intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. In these animals, the aberrant light cycle does not impair mood and learning, despite the presence of the conventional retinal ganglion cells and the ability of these animals to detect light for image formation. These findings demonstrate the ability of light to influence cognitive and mood functions directly through intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.  
  Address Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23151476; PMCID:PMC3549331 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 238  
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Author Wright, K.P.J.; Hull, J.T.; Czeisler, C.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Relationship between alertness, performance, and body temperature in humans Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology Abbreviated Journal Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol  
  Volume 283 Issue 6 Pages R1370-7  
  Keywords Human Health; Adult; Attention/*physiology; *Body Temperature; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Cognition/*physiology; Female; Humans; Male; Memory/physiology; Reaction Time; Sleep/physiology; Time Factors; Wakefulness/physiology; NASA Discipline Regulatory Physiology; Non-NASA Center  
  Abstract Body temperature has been reported to influence human performance. Performance is reported to be better when body temperature is high/near its circadian peak and worse when body temperature is low/near its circadian minimum. We assessed whether this relationship between performance and body temperature reflects the regulation of both the internal biological timekeeping system and/or the influence of body temperature on performance independent of circadian phase. Fourteen subjects participated in a forced desynchrony protocol allowing assessment of the relationship between body temperature and performance while controlling for circadian phase and hours awake. Most neurobehavioral measures varied as a function of internal biological time and duration of wakefulness. A number of performance measures were better when body temperature was elevated, including working memory, subjective alertness, visual attention, and the slowest 10% of reaction times. These findings demonstrate that an increased body temperature, associated with and independent of internal biological time, is correlated with improved performance and alertness. These results support the hypothesis that body temperature modulates neurobehavioral function in humans.  
  Address Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. kenneth.wright@colorado.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0363-6119 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:12388468 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 835  
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