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Author Walker, C.E.; Pompea, S.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title National education program for energy efficient illumination engineering Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Proceedings of SPIE Eco-Photonics 2011, Strasbourg, France, March 2011. Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 8065 Issue Pages (down) 80650Q-1  
  Keywords Skyglow; Illumination engineering; Pollution; Schools and universities; Observatories; Astronomy; Eye  
  Abstract About one-third of outdoor lighting escapes unused into the sky, wasting energy and causing sky glow. Because of excessive sky glow around astronomical facilities, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory has a strong motivation to lead light pollution education efforts. While our original motivation of preserving the dark skies near observatories is still important, energy conservation is a critical problem that needs to be addressed nationwide. To address this problem we have created an extensive educational program on understanding and measuring light pollution. A set of four learning experiences introduces school students at all grade levels to basic energy-responsive illumination engineering design principles that can minimize light pollution. We created and utilize the GLOBE at Night citizen science light pollution assessment campaign as a cornerstone activity. We also utilize educational activities on light shielding that are introduced through a teaching kit. These two components provide vocabulary, concepts, and visual illustrations of the causes of light pollution. The third, more advanced component is the school outdoor lighting audit, which has students perform an audit and produce a revised master plan for compliant lighting. These learning experiences provide an integrated learning unit that is highly adaptable for U.S. and international education efforts in this area.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 547  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Simoneau, A.; Aubé, M.; Bertolo, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Multispectral analysis of the night sky brightness and its origin for the Asiago Observatory, Italy Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal MNRAS  
  Volume 491 Issue 3 Pages (down) 4398-4405  
  Keywords Skyglow; light pollution; numerical methods; Site testing; Italy; Observatories  
  Abstract Night protection has been a major concern for astronomers since the electrification of cities and is beginning to be recognized as a major environmental problem. In recent years, regulations have been put in place through the establishment of Dark Sky Reserves that impose stringent constraints on lighting practices for cities in protected areas. Astronomers from the Asiago Observatory, located in the Veneto region of Italy, would like to create an area of this nature around their facilities to improve and protect the quality of their astronomical observations. This study assesses the current state of the sky in the region through numerical modelling using the latest improvements to the ILLUMINA model and aims to identify the main contributing sources of artificial light. The explicit calculation of the contribution of private residential lighting helps to discern the origin of the light. We also present a new approach for extracting an estimate of the distribution of lamp technology in a region from images taken from the International Space Station.  
  Address Bishop’s University, 2600 rue College, Sherbrooke, Québec J1M 1Z7, Canada; alsimoneau(at)gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Oxford Academic Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2790  
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Author Zhang, J.-C.; Ge, L.; Lu, X.-M.; Cao, Z.-H.; Chen, X.; Mao, Y.-N.; Jiang, X.-J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Astronomical Observing Conditions at Xinglong Observatory from 2007 to 2014 Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific  
  Volume 127 Issue 958 Pages (down) 1292-1306  
  Keywords Skyglow; light pollution; observatories; China; Xinglong; Sky Quality Meter; SQM  
  Abstract Xinglong Observatory of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), is one of the major optical observatories in China, which hosts nine optical telescopes including the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) and the 2.16 m reflector. Scientific research from these telescopes is focused on stars, galaxies, and exoplanets using multicolor photometry and spectroscopic observations. Therefore, it is important to provide the observing conditions of the site, in detail, to the astronomers for an efficient use of these facilities. In this article, we present the characterization of observing conditions at Xinglong Observatory based on the monitoring of meteorology, seeing and sky brightness during the period from 2007 to 2014. Meteorological data were collected from a commercial Automatic Weather Station (AWS), calibrated by China Meteorological Administration. Mean and median wind speed are almost constant during the period analyzed and ranged from 1.0 to 3.5 m s-1. However, high wind speed (≥15 m s-1) interrupts observations, mainly, during the winter and spring. Statistical analysis of air temperature showed the temperature difference between daytime and nighttime, which can be solved by opening the ventilation device and the slit of the dome at least 1 hr before observations. Analysis resulted in average percentage of photometric nights and spectroscopic nights are 32% and 63% per year, respectively. The distribution of photometric nights and spectroscopic nights has a significant seasonal tendency, worse in summer due to clouds, dust, and high humidity. Seeing measurements were obtained using the Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM). Mean and median values of seeing over 1 year are around 1.9″ and 1.7″, respectively. Eighty percent of nights with seeing values are below 2.6″, whereas the distribution peaks around 1.8″. The measurements of sky brightness are acquired from the Sky Quality Meter (SQM) and photometric observations. Analysis shows that sky brightness at the zenith is around 21.1 mag arcsec-2 and becomes brighter with a larger zenith angle. Sky brightness increases due to the light pollution of the surrounding cities, Beijing, Tangshan, and Chengde. Significant influence toward the direction of Beijing, at an altitude of 30°, can increase the sky brightness up to 20.0 mag arcsec-2. Sky brightness reduces after midnight, mainly because of the influence of city lights and the artificial acts. The above results suggest that Xinglong Observatory is still a good site for astronomical observations. Our analysis of the observing conditions at Xinglong Observatory can be used as a reference to the observers on targets selection, observing strategy, and telescope operation.  
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  Publisher Royal Astronomical Societynomical Society of the Pacific Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0004-6280 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1365  
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Author Hampf, D.; Rowell, G.; Wild, N.; Sudholz, T.; Horns, D.; Tluczykont, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Measurement of night sky brightness in southern Australia Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Advances in Space Research Abbreviated Journal Advances in Space Research  
  Volume 48 Issue 6 Pages (down) 1017-1025  
  Keywords Observatories and site testing; Airglow and aurorae; Photometric, polarimetric, and spectroscopic instrumentation  
  Abstract Night sky brightness is a major source of noise both for Cherenkov telescopes as well as for wide-angle Cherenkov detectors. Therefore, it is important to know the level of night sky brightness at potential sites for future experiments.

The measurements of night sky brightness presented here were carried out at Fowler’s Gap, a research station in New South Wales, Australia, which is a potential site for the proposed TenTen Cherenkov telescope system and the planned wide-angle Cherenkov detector system HiSCORE.

A portable instrument was developed and measurements of the night sky brightness were taken in February and August 2010. Brightness levels were measured for a range of different sky regions and in various spectral bands.

The night sky brightness in the relevant wavelength regime for photomultipliers was found to be at the same level as measured in similar campaigns at the established Cherenkov telescope sites of Khomas, Namibia, and at La Palma. The brightness of dark regions in the sky is about 2 × 1012 photons/(s sr m2) between 300 nm and 650 nm, and up to four times brighter in bright regions of the sky towards the galactic plane. The brightness in V band is 21.6 magnitudes per arcsec2 in the dark regions. All brightness levels are averaged over the field of view of the instrument of about 1.3 × 10−3 sr.

The spectrum of the night sky brightness was found to be dominated by longer wavelengths, which allows to apply filters to separate the night sky brightness from the blue Cherenkov light. The possible gain in the signal to noise ratio was found to be up to 1.2, assuming an ideal low-pass filter.
 
  Address Department of Physics, University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg, Germany  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0273-1177 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 189  
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Author Massey, P.; Foltz, C. B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Spectrum of the Night Sky over Mount Hopkins and Kitt Peak: Changes after a Decade1 Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal Publ Astron Soc Pac  
  Volume 112 Issue 770 Pages (down) 566-573  
  Keywords Kitt Peak; observatories; Arizona; skyglow; light pollution; measurements  
  Abstract Recent (1998–1999) absolute spectrophotometry of the night sky over two southern Arizona astronomical sites, Kitt Peak and Mount Hopkins, is compared to similar data obtained in 1988 at each site. The current zenith sky brightness in the range ∼3700–6700 Ã… is essentially identical at the two sites and is as dark now as Palomar Observatory was in the early 1970s, when it was generally considered a premier dark observing site. Converted to broadband measurements, our spectrophotometry is equivalent to , mag arcsec−2, for the zenith night sky. The contribution of high‐pressure sodium street lights to broadband V is about 0.2 mag arcsec−2, comparable to the strong airglow O i λ5577 line. During the period from 1988 to 1998–1999, the zenith sky brightness increased only modestly, with the largest changes being seen for Kitt Peak, where the zenith sky has brightened by ≈0.1–0.2 mag arcsec−2 in the blue‐optical region. For Kitt Peak we also have both 1988 and 1999 observations at modestly large zenith distances ( ). In the directions away from Tucson, the sky has brightened by ≈0.35 mag arcsec−2 over the intervening decade. Toward Tucson the change has been larger, approximately 0.5 mag arcsec−2. In most directions the increase in the sky brightness has lagged behind the fractional increase in population growth, which we attribute to good outdoor lighting ordinances, a fact which is further reflected in the decrease in Hg emission. However, our results emphasize the need for diligent attention as developments creep closer to our observing sites.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0004-6280 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 264  
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