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Author Noll, S.; Kausch, W.; Barden, M.; Jones, A.M.; Szyszka, C.; Kimeswenger, S.; Vinther, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title An atmospheric radiation model for Cerro Paranal: I. The optical spectral range* Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Astronomy & Astrophysics Abbreviated Journal A&A  
  Volume 543 Issue Pages A92  
  Keywords atmospheric effects; site testing; radiative transfer; radiation mechanisms: general; scattering; techniques; spectroscopic; modeling; observatories; Cerro Paranal  
  Abstract Aims. The Earth’s atmosphere affects ground-based astronomical observations. Scattering, absorption, and radiation processes deteriorate the signal-to-noise ratio of the data received. For scheduling astronomical observations it is, therefore, important to accurately estimate the wavelength-dependent effect of the Earth’s atmosphere on the observed flux.

Methods. In order to increase the accuracy of the exposure time calculator of the European Southern Observatory’s (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Cerro Paranal, an atmospheric model was developed as part of the Austrian ESO In-Kind contribution. It includes all relevant components, such as scattered moonlight, scattered starlight, zodiacal light, atmospheric thermal radiation and absorption, and non-thermal airglow emission. This paper focuses on atmospheric scattering processes that mostly affect the blue (<0.55&#8201;&#956;m) wavelength regime, and airglow emission lines and continuum that dominate the red (>0.55&#8201;&#956;m) wavelength regime. While the former is mainly investigated by means of radiative transfer models, the intensity and variability of the latter is studied with a sample of 1186 VLT FORS&#8201;1 spectra.

Results. For a set of parameters such as the object altitude angle, Moon-object angular distance, ecliptic latitude, bimonthly period, and solar radio flux, our model predicts atmospheric radiation and transmission at a requested resolution. A comparison of our model with the FORS&#8201;1 spectra and photometric data for the night-sky brightness from the literature, suggest a model accuracy of about 20%. This is a significant improvement with respect to existing predictive atmospheric models for astronomical exposure time calculators.
 
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  ISSN (up) 0004-6361 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 274  
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Author Simoneau, A.; Aubé, M.; Bertolo, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Multispectral analysis of the night sky brightness and its origin for the Asiago Observatory, Italy Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal MNRAS  
  Volume 491 Issue 3 Pages 4398-4405  
  Keywords Skyglow; light pollution; numerical methods; Site testing; Italy; Observatories  
  Abstract Night protection has been a major concern for astronomers since the electrification of cities and is beginning to be recognized as a major environmental problem. In recent years, regulations have been put in place through the establishment of Dark Sky Reserves that impose stringent constraints on lighting practices for cities in protected areas. Astronomers from the Asiago Observatory, located in the Veneto region of Italy, would like to create an area of this nature around their facilities to improve and protect the quality of their astronomical observations. This study assesses the current state of the sky in the region through numerical modelling using the latest improvements to the ILLUMINA model and aims to identify the main contributing sources of artificial light. The explicit calculation of the contribution of private residential lighting helps to discern the origin of the light. We also present a new approach for extracting an estimate of the distribution of lamp technology in a region from images taken from the International Space Station.  
  Address Bishop’s University, 2600 rue College, Sherbrooke, Québec J1M 1Z7, Canada; alsimoneau(at)gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Oxford Academic Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (up) 0035-8711 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2790  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Hampf, D.; Rowell, G.; Wild, N.; Sudholz, T.; Horns, D.; Tluczykont, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Measurement of night sky brightness in southern Australia Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Advances in Space Research Abbreviated Journal Advances in Space Research  
  Volume 48 Issue 6 Pages 1017-1025  
  Keywords Observatories and site testing; Airglow and aurorae; Photometric, polarimetric, and spectroscopic instrumentation  
  Abstract Night sky brightness is a major source of noise both for Cherenkov telescopes as well as for wide-angle Cherenkov detectors. Therefore, it is important to know the level of night sky brightness at potential sites for future experiments.

The measurements of night sky brightness presented here were carried out at Fowler’s Gap, a research station in New South Wales, Australia, which is a potential site for the proposed TenTen Cherenkov telescope system and the planned wide-angle Cherenkov detector system HiSCORE.

A portable instrument was developed and measurements of the night sky brightness were taken in February and August 2010. Brightness levels were measured for a range of different sky regions and in various spectral bands.

The night sky brightness in the relevant wavelength regime for photomultipliers was found to be at the same level as measured in similar campaigns at the established Cherenkov telescope sites of Khomas, Namibia, and at La Palma. The brightness of dark regions in the sky is about 2 × 1012 photons/(s sr m2) between 300 nm and 650 nm, and up to four times brighter in bright regions of the sky towards the galactic plane. The brightness in V band is 21.6 magnitudes per arcsec2 in the dark regions. All brightness levels are averaged over the field of view of the instrument of about 1.3 × 10&#8722;3 sr.

The spectrum of the night sky brightness was found to be dominated by longer wavelengths, which allows to apply filters to separate the night sky brightness from the blue Cherenkov light. The possible gain in the signal to noise ratio was found to be up to 1.2, assuming an ideal low-pass filter.
 
  Address Department of Physics, University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg, Germany  
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  ISSN (up) 0273-1177 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 189  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Vázquez-Mata, J.A.; Hernández-Toledo, H.M.; Martínez-Vázquez, L.A.; Pani-Cielo, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light pollution around Tonantzintla Observatory Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union Abbreviated Journal Proc. IAU  
  Volume 5 Issue S260 Pages  
  Keywords light pollution; observatories; sky brightness; Tonantzintla; Mexico; skyglow  
  Abstract Being close to the cities of Puebla to east and Cholula to the north, both having potential for large growth, the National Astronomical Observatory in Tonantzintla (OAN-Tonantzintla) faces the danger of deteriorating its sky conditions even more. In order to maintain competitiveness for education and scientific programs, it is important to preserve the sky brightness conditions. through: 1) our awareness of the night sky characteristics in continuous monitoring campaigns, doing more measurements over the next years to monitor changes and 2) encouraging local authorities about the need to regulate public lighting at the same time, showing them the benefits of such initiatives when well planed and correctly implemented.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (up) 1743-9213 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 263  
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