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Author Hampf, D.; Rowell, G.; Wild, N.; Sudholz, T.; Horns, D.; Tluczykont, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Measurement of night sky brightness in southern Australia Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Advances in Space Research Abbreviated Journal Advances in Space Research  
  Volume 48 Issue (up) 6 Pages 1017-1025  
  Keywords Observatories and site testing; Airglow and aurorae; Photometric, polarimetric, and spectroscopic instrumentation  
  Abstract Night sky brightness is a major source of noise both for Cherenkov telescopes as well as for wide-angle Cherenkov detectors. Therefore, it is important to know the level of night sky brightness at potential sites for future experiments.

The measurements of night sky brightness presented here were carried out at Fowler’s Gap, a research station in New South Wales, Australia, which is a potential site for the proposed TenTen Cherenkov telescope system and the planned wide-angle Cherenkov detector system HiSCORE.

A portable instrument was developed and measurements of the night sky brightness were taken in February and August 2010. Brightness levels were measured for a range of different sky regions and in various spectral bands.

The night sky brightness in the relevant wavelength regime for photomultipliers was found to be at the same level as measured in similar campaigns at the established Cherenkov telescope sites of Khomas, Namibia, and at La Palma. The brightness of dark regions in the sky is about 2 × 1012 photons/(s sr m2) between 300 nm and 650 nm, and up to four times brighter in bright regions of the sky towards the galactic plane. The brightness in V band is 21.6 magnitudes per arcsec2 in the dark regions. All brightness levels are averaged over the field of view of the instrument of about 1.3 × 10−3 sr.

The spectrum of the night sky brightness was found to be dominated by longer wavelengths, which allows to apply filters to separate the night sky brightness from the blue Cherenkov light. The possible gain in the signal to noise ratio was found to be up to 1.2, assuming an ideal low-pass filter.
 
  Address Department of Physics, University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg, Germany  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0273-1177 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 189  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Massey, P.; Foltz, C. B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Spectrum of the Night Sky over Mount Hopkins and Kitt Peak: Changes after a Decade1 Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal Publ Astron Soc Pac  
  Volume 112 Issue (up) 770 Pages 566-573  
  Keywords Kitt Peak; observatories; Arizona; skyglow; light pollution; measurements  
  Abstract Recent (1998–1999) absolute spectrophotometry of the night sky over two southern Arizona astronomical sites, Kitt Peak and Mount Hopkins, is compared to similar data obtained in 1988 at each site. The current zenith sky brightness in the range ∼3700–6700 Ã… is essentially identical at the two sites and is as dark now as Palomar Observatory was in the early 1970s, when it was generally considered a premier dark observing site. Converted to broadband measurements, our spectrophotometry is equivalent to , mag arcsec−2, for the zenith night sky. The contribution of high‐pressure sodium street lights to broadband V is about 0.2 mag arcsec−2, comparable to the strong airglow O i λ5577 line. During the period from 1988 to 1998–1999, the zenith sky brightness increased only modestly, with the largest changes being seen for Kitt Peak, where the zenith sky has brightened by ≈0.1–0.2 mag arcsec−2 in the blue‐optical region. For Kitt Peak we also have both 1988 and 1999 observations at modestly large zenith distances ( ). In the directions away from Tucson, the sky has brightened by ≈0.35 mag arcsec−2 over the intervening decade. Toward Tucson the change has been larger, approximately 0.5 mag arcsec−2. In most directions the increase in the sky brightness has lagged behind the fractional increase in population growth, which we attribute to good outdoor lighting ordinances, a fact which is further reflected in the decrease in Hg emission. However, our results emphasize the need for diligent attention as developments creep closer to our observing sites.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0004-6280 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 264  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Zhang, J.-C.; Ge, L.; Lu, X.-M.; Cao, Z.-H.; Chen, X.; Mao, Y.-N.; Jiang, X.-J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Astronomical Observing Conditions at Xinglong Observatory from 2007 to 2014 Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific  
  Volume 127 Issue (up) 958 Pages 1292-1306  
  Keywords Skyglow; light pollution; observatories; China; Xinglong; Sky Quality Meter; SQM  
  Abstract Xinglong Observatory of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), is one of the major optical observatories in China, which hosts nine optical telescopes including the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) and the 2.16 m reflector. Scientific research from these telescopes is focused on stars, galaxies, and exoplanets using multicolor photometry and spectroscopic observations. Therefore, it is important to provide the observing conditions of the site, in detail, to the astronomers for an efficient use of these facilities. In this article, we present the characterization of observing conditions at Xinglong Observatory based on the monitoring of meteorology, seeing and sky brightness during the period from 2007 to 2014. Meteorological data were collected from a commercial Automatic Weather Station (AWS), calibrated by China Meteorological Administration. Mean and median wind speed are almost constant during the period analyzed and ranged from 1.0 to 3.5 m s-1. However, high wind speed (≥15 m s-1) interrupts observations, mainly, during the winter and spring. Statistical analysis of air temperature showed the temperature difference between daytime and nighttime, which can be solved by opening the ventilation device and the slit of the dome at least 1 hr before observations. Analysis resulted in average percentage of photometric nights and spectroscopic nights are 32% and 63% per year, respectively. The distribution of photometric nights and spectroscopic nights has a significant seasonal tendency, worse in summer due to clouds, dust, and high humidity. Seeing measurements were obtained using the Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM). Mean and median values of seeing over 1 year are around 1.9″ and 1.7″, respectively. Eighty percent of nights with seeing values are below 2.6″, whereas the distribution peaks around 1.8″. The measurements of sky brightness are acquired from the Sky Quality Meter (SQM) and photometric observations. Analysis shows that sky brightness at the zenith is around 21.1 mag arcsec-2 and becomes brighter with a larger zenith angle. Sky brightness increases due to the light pollution of the surrounding cities, Beijing, Tangshan, and Chengde. Significant influence toward the direction of Beijing, at an altitude of 30°, can increase the sky brightness up to 20.0 mag arcsec-2. Sky brightness reduces after midnight, mainly because of the influence of city lights and the artificial acts. The above results suggest that Xinglong Observatory is still a good site for astronomical observations. Our analysis of the observing conditions at Xinglong Observatory can be used as a reference to the observers on targets selection, observing strategy, and telescope operation.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Royal Astronomical Societynomical Society of the Pacific Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0004-6280 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1365  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Vázquez-Mata, J.A.; Hernández-Toledo, H.M.; Martínez-Vázquez, L.A.; Pani-Cielo, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light pollution around Tonantzintla Observatory Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union Abbreviated Journal Proc. IAU  
  Volume 5 Issue (up) S260 Pages  
  Keywords light pollution; observatories; sky brightness; Tonantzintla; Mexico; skyglow  
  Abstract Being close to the cities of Puebla to east and Cholula to the north, both having potential for large growth, the National Astronomical Observatory in Tonantzintla (OAN-Tonantzintla) faces the danger of deteriorating its sky conditions even more. In order to maintain competitiveness for education and scientific programs, it is important to preserve the sky brightness conditions. through: 1) our awareness of the night sky characteristics in continuous monitoring campaigns, doing more measurements over the next years to monitor changes and 2) encouraging local authorities about the need to regulate public lighting at the same time, showing them the benefits of such initiatives when well planed and correctly implemented.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1743-9213 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 263  
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