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Author Caffarra, A.; Donnelly, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The ecological significance of phenology in four different tree species: effects of light and temperature on bud burst Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication International Journal of Biometeorology Abbreviated Journal (up) Int J Biometeorol  
  Volume 55 Issue 5 Pages 711-721  
  Keywords Plants  
  Abstract The process of adaptation is the result of stabilising selection caused by two opposite forces: protection against an unfavourable season (survival adaptation), and effective use of growing resources (capacity adaptation). As plant species have evolved different life strategies based on different trade offs between survival and capacity adaptations, different phenological responses are also expected among species. The aim of this study was to compare budburst responses of two opportunistic species (Betula pubescens, and Salix x smithiana) with that of two long-lived, late successional species (Fagus sylvatica and Tilia cordata) and consider their ecological significance. Thus, we performed a series of experiments whereby temperature and photoperiod were manipulated during dormancy. T. cordata and F. sylvatica showed low rates of budburst, high chilling requirements and responsiveness to light intensity, while B. pubescens and S. x smithiana had high rates of budburst, low chilling requirements and were not affected by light intensity. In addition, budburst in B. pubescens and S. x smithiana was more responsive to high forcing temperatures than in T. cordata and F. sylvatica. These results suggest that the timing of growth onset in B. pubescens and S. x smithiana (opportunistic) is regulated through a less conservative mechanism than in T. cordata and F. sylvatica (long-lived, late successional), and that these species trade a higher risk of frost damage for the opportunity of vigorous growth at the beginning of spring, before canopy closure. This information should be considered when assessing the impacts of climate change on vegetation or developing phenological models.  
  Address Department of Botany, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. amelia.caffarra@gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0020-7128 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21113629 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1675  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Liu, Z.; Lv, Y.; Ding, R.; Chen, X.; Pu, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light Pollution Changes the Toxicological Effects of Cadmium on Microbial Community Structure and Function Associated with Leaf Litter Decomposition Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication International Journal of Molecular Sciences Abbreviated Journal (up) Int J Mol Sci  
  Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages  
  Keywords Plants; Illumina Sequencing; artificial light at night; cadmium pollution; extracellular enzyme activities; litter decomposition; microbial biodiversity  
  Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN/A) can not only alter the behavior and communication of biological organisms, it can also interact with other stressors. Despite its widespread use and the numerous potential ecological effects, little is known about the impact of ALAN on plant litter decomposition under cadmium (Cd) pollution in aquatic ecosystems. In an indoor microcosm experiment, we tested single and combined effects of ALAN and Cd on the activities and community structure of fungi associated with plant litter. The results showed that ALAN and/or Cd can change both water and leaf litter characteristics. ALAN exposure not only altered fungal community structure and their correlations, but also increased the activities of alkaline phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, and cellobiohydrolase. The leaf litter decomposition rate was 71% higher in the A-Cd treatment than that in the N-Cd treatment, indicating that the presence of ALAN weakened the negative impact of Cd on leaf litter decomposition. These results suggested that ALAN exposure mitigated the negative effect of Cd on leaf litter decomposition, contributing to the duel effect of ALAN on leaf litter decomposition. Overall, the results expand our understanding of ALAN on the environment and highlight the contribution of ALAN to Cd toxicity in aquatic ecosystems.  
  Address Guangxi Key Laboratory of Plant Conservation and Restoration Ecology in Karst Terrain, Guangxi Institute of Botany, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guilin 541006, China  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1422-0067 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31936535 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2818  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Cruse, D.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.; Lewis, O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light at night causes top-down and bottom-up trophic effects on invertebrate populations Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal (up) J Appl Ecol  
  Volume 55 Issue 6 Pages 2698-2706  
  Keywords Ecology; Animals; Plants  
  Abstract Globally, many ecosystems are exposed to artificial light at night. Nighttime lighting has direct biological impacts on species at all trophic levels. However, the effects of artificial light on biotic interactions remain, for the most part, to be determined.

We exposed experimental mesocosms containing combinations of grassland plants and invertebrate herbivores and predators to illumination at night over a 3‐year period to simulate conditions under different common forms of street lighting.

We demonstrate both top‐down (predation‐controlled) and bottom‐up (resource‐controlled) impacts of artificial light at night in grassland communities. The impacts on invertebrate herbivore abundance were wavelength‐dependent and mediated via other trophic levels.

White LED lighting decreased the abundance of a generalist herbivore mollusc by 55% in the presence of a visual predator, but not in its absence, while monochromatic amber light (with a peak wavelength similar to low‐pressure sodium lighting) decreased abundance of a specialist herbivore aphid (by 17%) by reducing the cover and flower abundance of its main food plant in the system. Artificial white light also significantly increased the food plant's foliar carbon to nitrogen ratio.

We conclude that exposure to artificial light at night can trigger ecological effects spanning trophic levels, and that the nature of such impacts depends on the wavelengths emitted by the lighting technology employed.

Policy implications. Our results confirm that artificial light at night, at illuminance levels similar to roadside vegetation, can have population effects mediated by both top‐down and bottom‐up effects on ecosystems. Given the increasing ubiquity of light pollution at night, these impacts may be widespread in the environment. These results underline the importance of minimizing ecosystem disruption by reducing light pollution in natural and seminatural ecosystems.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2086  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Margot, J.-L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Insufficient Evidence of Purported Lunar Effect on Pollination in Ephedra Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal (up) J Biol Rhythms  
  Volume 30 Issue 5 Pages 454-456  
  Keywords Animals; Plants; Moonlight  
  Abstract It has been suggested that the timing of pollination in Ephedra foeminea coincides with the full moon in July. The implication is that the plant can detect the full moon through light or gravity and that this trait is an evolutionary adaptation that aids the navigation by pollinating insects. Here we show that there are insufficient data to make such a claim, and we predict that pollinations of E. foeminea do not in general coincide with the full moon.  
  Address Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USADepartment of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA jlm@astro.ucla.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26316347 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1557  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Cruse, D.; Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Ecological effects of artificial light at night on wild plants Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Ecology Abbreviated Journal (up) J Ecol  
  Volume 104 Issue 3 Pages 611-620  
  Keywords Plants; wild plants; photobiology; Circadian; Ecophysiology; light cycles; light pollution; photoperiodism; photopollution; physiology; sky glow; urban ecology  
  Abstract 1.Plants use light as a source of both energy and information. Plant physiological responses to light, and interactions between plants and animals (such as herbivory and pollination), have evolved under a more or less stable regime of 24-hour cycles of light and darkness, and, outside of the tropics, seasonal variation in daylength.

2.The rapid spread of outdoor electric lighting across the globe over the past century has caused an unprecedented disruption to these natural light cycles. Artificial light is widespread in the environment, varying in intensity by several orders of magnitude from faint skyglow reflected from distant cities to direct illumination of urban and suburban vegetation.

3.In many cases artificial light in the nighttime environment is sufficiently bright to induce a physiological response in plants, affecting their phenology, growth form and resource allocation. The physiology, behaviour and ecology of herbivores and pollinators is also likely to be impacted by artificial light. Thus, understanding the ecological consequences of artificial light at night is critical to determine the full impact of human activity on ecosystems.

4.Synthesis. Understanding the impacts of artificial nighttime light on wild plants and natural vegetation requires linking the knowledge gained from over a century of experimental research on the impacts of light on plants in the laboratory and greenhouse with knowledge of the intensity, spatial distribution, spectral composition and timing of light in the nighttime environment. To understand fully the extent of these impacts requires conceptual models that can (i) characterise the highly heterogeneous nature of the nighttime light environment at a scale relevant to plant physiology, and (ii) scale physiological responses to predict impacts at the level of the whole plant, population, community and ecosystem.
 
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, United Kimgdom; j.j.bennie(at)exeter.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-0477 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1350  
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