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Author Tewolde, F.T.; Lu, N.; Shiina, K.; Maruo, T.; Takagaki, M.; Kozai, T.; Yamori, W.
Title Nighttime Supplemental LED Inter-lighting Improves Growth and Yield of Single-Truss Tomatoes by Enhancing Photosynthesis in Both Winter and Summer Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Frontiers in Plant Science Abbreviated Journal Front Plant Sci
Volume 7 Issue Pages 448
Keywords Plants; LED; fruit quality; lighting period; photosynthesis; plant factory; single-truss tomato; supplemental lighting; yield
Abstract (up) Greenhouses with sophisticated environmental control systems, or so-called plant factories with solar light, enable growers to achieve high yields of produce with desirable qualities. In a greenhouse crop with high planting density, low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) at the lower leaves tends to limit plant growth, especially in the winter when the solar altitude and PPFD at the canopy are low and day length is shorter than in summer. Therefore, providing supplemental lighting to the lower canopy can increase year-round productivity. However, supplemental lighting can be expensive. In some places, the cost of electricity is lower at night, but the effect of using supplemental light at night has not yet been examined. In this study, we examined the effects of supplemental LED inter-lighting (LED inter-lighting hereafter) during the daytime or nighttime on photosynthesis, growth, and yield of single-truss tomato plants both in winter and summer. We used LED inter-lighting modules with combined red and blue light to illuminate lower leaves right after the first anthesis. The PPFD of this light was 165 mumol m(-2) s(-1) measured at 10 cm from the LED module. LED inter-lighting was provided from 4:00 am to 4:00 pm for the daytime treatments and from 10:00 pm to 10:00 am for the nighttime treatments. Plants exposed only to solar light were used as controls. Daytime LED inter-lighting increased the photosynthetic capacity of middle and lower canopy leaves, which significantly increased yield by 27% in winter; however, photosynthetic capacity and yield were not significantly increased during summer. Nighttime LED inter-lighting increased photosynthetic capacity in both winter and summer, and yield increased by 24% in winter and 12% in summer. In addition, nighttime LED inter-lighting in winter significantly increased the total soluble solids and ascorbic acid content of the tomato fruits, by 20 and 25%, respectively. Use of nighttime LED inter-lighting was also more cost-effective than daytime inter-lighting. Thus, nighttime LED inter-lighting can effectively improve tomato plant growth and yield with lower energy cost compared with daytime both in summer and winter.
Address Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Chiba University, Kashiwa, Japan; Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Tokyo, Japan
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Frontiers Media S.A. Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1664-462X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27092163; PMCID:PMC4823311 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1434
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Author Haag, C.R.; Riek, M.; Hottinger, J.W.; Pajunen, V.I.; Ebert, D.
Title Genetic diversity and genetic differentiation in Daphnia metapopulations with subpopulations of known age Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Genetics Abbreviated Journal Genetics
Volume 170 Issue 4 Pages 1809-1820
Keywords Plants; Aging; Animals; Daphnia/*genetics/*physiology; *Genetic Variation; *Genetics, Population
Abstract (up) If colonization of empty habitat patches causes genetic bottlenecks, freshly founded, young populations should be genetically less diverse than older ones that may have experienced successive rounds of immigration. This can be studied in metapopulations with subpopulations of known age. We studied allozyme variation in metapopulations of two species of water fleas (Daphnia) in the skerry archipelago of southern Finland. These populations have been monitored since 1982. Screening 49 populations of D. longispina and 77 populations of D. magna, separated by distances of 1.5-2180 m, we found that local genetic diversity increased with population age whereas pairwise differentiation among pools decreased with population age. These patterns persisted even after controlling for several potentially confounding ecological variables, indicating that extinction and recolonization dynamics decrease local genetic diversity and increase genetic differentiation in these metapopulations by causing genetic bottlenecks during colonization. We suggest that the effect of these bottlenecks may be twofold, namely decreasing genetic diversity by random sampling and leading to population-wide inbreeding. Subsequent immigration then may not only introduce new genetic material, but also lead to the production of noninbred hybrids, selection for which may cause immigrant alleles to increase in frequency, thus leading to increased genetic diversity in older populations.
Address Unite d'Ecologie et d'Evolution, Departement de Biologie, Universite de Fribourg, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland. christoph.haag@ed.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0016-6731 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:15937138; PMCID:PMC1449778 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 660
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Author Tavhare, S.D.; Nishteswar, K.; Shukla, V.J.
Title Influence of lunar cycles on growth of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Ayu Abbreviated Journal Ayu
Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 258-264
Keywords Plants; Moonlight
Abstract (up) INTRODUCTION: Ayurvedic classics have advocated to collect the medicinal plants according to part used and seasons in order to get desired pharmacological action and therapeutic benefits. The logic behind this principle is being validated by recent researches. AIM: To analyze the influence of lunar cycles on growth of Ashwagandha in Shishira and Greeshma Ritu (winter and summer season). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen small crops of Ashwagandha of average size 10 cm were collected on October 7, 2013, from institute campus and then replantation was done at Charaka Herbal Garden, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar in an area of 60 cm x 60 cm (l x b). No fertilizers or pesticides were used. The plants were watered daily and plants were uprooted as per lunar cycles for analysis. Eight samples were collected and observed during Shishira and Greeshma season on Pournima (full moon) and Amavasya (new moon) days. The measurements were taken thrice and average values were taken into consideration for study purpose. The variations in morphological characteristics such as length, breadth, weight, and number of roots and twigs were studied through statistical procedure of principle component analysis, which makes interpretation of all possible related variables. RESULTS: Root weight (RW), pith diameter (PD) and internodal distance (ID) were found to be increased on full moon days as compared to new moon days. The maximum RW was observed during Greeshma Aashadha Pournima. CONCLUSION: The study has shown a definite influence of lunar cycles on the growth of the plant parts assessed by RW, PD, and ID that have found to be increased on full moon days as compared to new moon days.
Address Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry Laboratory, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0974-8520 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27313411; PMCID:PMC4895751 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1559
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Author Margot, J.-L.
Title Insufficient Evidence of Purported Lunar Effect on Pollination in Ephedra Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms
Volume 30 Issue 5 Pages 454-456
Keywords Animals; Plants; Moonlight
Abstract (up) It has been suggested that the timing of pollination in Ephedra foeminea coincides with the full moon in July. The implication is that the plant can detect the full moon through light or gravity and that this trait is an evolutionary adaptation that aids the navigation by pollinating insects. Here we show that there are insufficient data to make such a claim, and we predict that pollinations of E. foeminea do not in general coincide with the full moon.
Address Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USADepartment of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA jlm@astro.ucla.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:26316347 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1557
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Author Taylor, G.; Davies, W.J.
Title The Control Of Leaf Growth Of Betula And Acer By Photoenvironment Type Journal Article
Year 1985 Publication New Phytologist Abbreviated Journal New Phytol
Volume 101 Issue 2 Pages 259-268
Keywords Plants
Abstract (up) Leaf extension of one‐year‐old seedlings of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.), was measured using linear variable transducers (LVDTs) interfaced to a microcomputer. Birch and sycamore seedlings exhibited contrasting patterns of leaf extension during a diurnal cycle with a 16 h photoperiod. Birch leaves grew more rapidly when illuminated; growth during the photoperiod was approximately doubled when compared with growth in the dark. Mean relative growth rates ±SE at ‘lights‐on + 3 h’ and ‘lights‐off + 5 h’ were 0.0136 ± 0.0016 and 0.0066 ± 0.0005 h−1 respectively. In direct contrast, growth of sycamore leaves was increased when leaves were darkened; mean relative growth rates + SE at ‘lights‐on+3 h’ and ‘lights‐off + 5 h’ were 0.0056 ± 0.0005 and 0.0094 ± 0.0008 h‐1 respectively.

When leaves of birch and sycamore were darkened, increased leaf turgor was measured in both species, but only in sycamore was this higher night‐time turgor associated with a higher rate of leaf growth.

Cell wall extensibility (WEX), an indication of the ability of cell walls to loosen and extend irreversibly, and cell surface pH were assessed in darkened and illuminated leaves of both species. An increase in WEX was measured when birch leaves were illuminated (P≤ 0.001) and this was accompanied by a decline in cell surface pH (P≤ 0.001). However, when leaves of sycamore were illuminated, WEX declined (P≤ 005) and cell surface pH increased (P≤ 0.001).

The ability of these species to survive beneath a woodland canopy is discussed in relation to the cellular factors controlling their leaf growth.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0028-646X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1992
Permanent link to this record