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Author Kim, Y.J.; Kim, H.M.; Kim, H.M.; Jeong, B.R.; Lee, H.-J.; Kim, H.-J.; Hwang, S.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Ice plant growth and phytochemical concentrations are affected by light quality and intensity of monochromatic light-emitting diodes Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology Abbreviated Journal Hortic. Environ. Biotechnol.  
  Volume 59 Issue 4 Pages 529-536  
  Keywords Plants  
  Abstract The ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.), widely known to be an effective cure for diabetes mellitus, is also a functional crop. This study was conducted to examine the effects of light quality and intensity of monochromatic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on ice plant growth and phytochemical concentrations in a closed-type plant production system. Ice plant seedlings were transplanted into a deep floating technique system with a recycling nutrient solution (EC 4.0 dS m−1, pH 6.5). Fluorescent lamps, as well as monochromatic red (660 nm) and blue (450 nm) LEDs, were used at 120 ± 5 or 150 ± 5 µmol m−2 s−1 PPFD with a photoperiod of 14 h/10 h (light/dark) for 4 weeks. Ice plants showed higher growth under the high light intensity treatment, especially under the red LEDs. Furthermore, the SPAD value and photosynthetic rate were higher under the red LEDs with 150 µmol m−2 s−1 PPFD. The ice plant phytochemical composition, such as antioxidant activity and myo-inositol and pinitol concentrations, were highest under the blue LEDs with 150 µmol m−2 s−1 PPFD. Total phenolic concentration was highest under the blue LEDs with 120 µmol m−2 s−1 PPFD. Despite a slightly different dependence on light intensity, phytochemical concentrations responded positively to the blue LED treatments, as compared to other treatments. In conclusion, this study suggests that red LEDs enhance ice plant biomass, while blue LEDs induce phytochemical  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2211-3452 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1983  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Taylor, G.; Davies, W.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Control Of Leaf Growth Of Betula And Acer By Photoenvironment Type Journal Article
  Year 1985 Publication New Phytologist Abbreviated Journal New Phytol  
  Volume 101 Issue 2 Pages 259-268  
  Keywords Plants  
  Abstract Leaf extension of one‐year‐old seedlings of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.), was measured using linear variable transducers (LVDTs) interfaced to a microcomputer. Birch and sycamore seedlings exhibited contrasting patterns of leaf extension during a diurnal cycle with a 16 h photoperiod. Birch leaves grew more rapidly when illuminated; growth during the photoperiod was approximately doubled when compared with growth in the dark. Mean relative growth rates ±SE at ‘lights‐on + 3 h’ and ‘lights‐off + 5 h’ were 0.0136 ± 0.0016 and 0.0066 ± 0.0005 h−1 respectively. In direct contrast, growth of sycamore leaves was increased when leaves were darkened; mean relative growth rates + SE at ‘lights‐on+3 h’ and ‘lights‐off + 5 h’ were 0.0056 ± 0.0005 and 0.0094 ± 0.0008 h‐1 respectively.

When leaves of birch and sycamore were darkened, increased leaf turgor was measured in both species, but only in sycamore was this higher night‐time turgor associated with a higher rate of leaf growth.

Cell wall extensibility (WEX), an indication of the ability of cell walls to loosen and extend irreversibly, and cell surface pH were assessed in darkened and illuminated leaves of both species. An increase in WEX was measured when birch leaves were illuminated (P≤ 0.001) and this was accompanied by a decline in cell surface pH (P≤ 0.001). However, when leaves of sycamore were illuminated, WEX declined (P≤ 005) and cell surface pH increased (P≤ 0.001).

The ability of these species to survive beneath a woodland canopy is discussed in relation to the cellular factors controlling their leaf growth.
 
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0028-646X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1992  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Maggi, E.; Benedetti-Cecchi, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Trophic compensation stabilizes marine primary producers exposed to artificial light at night Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Marine Ecology Progress Series Abbreviated Journal Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.  
  Volume 606 Issue Pages 1-5  
  Keywords Plants; Animals; Ecology  
  Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is a widespread phenomenon along coastal areas. Despite increasing evidence of pervasive effects of ALAN on patterns of species distribution and abundance, the potential of this emerging threat to alter ecological processes in marine ecosystems has remained largely unexplored. Here, we show how exposure to white LED lighting, comparable to that experienced along local urbanized coasts, significantly enhanced the impact of grazing gastropods on epilithic microphytobenthos (MPB). ALAN increased both the photosynthetic biomass of MPB and the grazing pressure of gastropods, such that consumers compensated for the positive effect of night lighting on primary producers. Our results indicate that trophic interactions can provide a stabilizing compensatory mechanism against ALAN effects in natural food webs.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0171-8630 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2063  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Cruse, D.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.; Lewis, O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light at night causes top-down and bottom-up trophic effects on invertebrate populations Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol  
  Volume 55 Issue 6 Pages 2698-2706  
  Keywords Ecology; Animals; Plants  
  Abstract Globally, many ecosystems are exposed to artificial light at night. Nighttime lighting has direct biological impacts on species at all trophic levels. However, the effects of artificial light on biotic interactions remain, for the most part, to be determined.

We exposed experimental mesocosms containing combinations of grassland plants and invertebrate herbivores and predators to illumination at night over a 3‐year period to simulate conditions under different common forms of street lighting.

We demonstrate both top‐down (predation‐controlled) and bottom‐up (resource‐controlled) impacts of artificial light at night in grassland communities. The impacts on invertebrate herbivore abundance were wavelength‐dependent and mediated via other trophic levels.

White LED lighting decreased the abundance of a generalist herbivore mollusc by 55% in the presence of a visual predator, but not in its absence, while monochromatic amber light (with a peak wavelength similar to low‐pressure sodium lighting) decreased abundance of a specialist herbivore aphid (by 17%) by reducing the cover and flower abundance of its main food plant in the system. Artificial white light also significantly increased the food plant's foliar carbon to nitrogen ratio.

We conclude that exposure to artificial light at night can trigger ecological effects spanning trophic levels, and that the nature of such impacts depends on the wavelengths emitted by the lighting technology employed.

Policy implications. Our results confirm that artificial light at night, at illuminance levels similar to roadside vegetation, can have population effects mediated by both top‐down and bottom‐up effects on ecosystems. Given the increasing ubiquity of light pollution at night, these impacts may be widespread in the environment. These results underline the importance of minimizing ecosystem disruption by reducing light pollution in natural and seminatural ecosystems.
 
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2086  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Macgregor, C.J.; Pocock, M.J.O.; Fox, R.; Evans, D.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of street lighting technologies on the success and quality of pollination in a nocturnally pollinated plant Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Ecosphere Abbreviated Journal Ecosphere  
  Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages e02550  
  Keywords Ecology; Animals; Plants  
  Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasingly important driver of global change. Lighting directly affects plants, but few studies have investigated indirect effects mediated by interacting organisms. Nocturnal Lepidoptera are globally important pollinators, and pollen transport by moths is disrupted by lighting. Many street lighting systems are being replaced with novel, energy‐efficient lighting, with unknown ecological consequences. Using the wildflower Silene latifolia, we compared pollination success and quality at experimentally lit and unlit plots, testing two major changes to street lighting technology: in lamp type, from high‐pressure sodium lamps to light‐emitting diodes, and in lighting regime, from full‐night (FN) to part‐night (PN) lighting. We predicted that lighting would reduce pollination. S. latifolia was pollinated both diurnally and nocturnally. Contrary to our predictions, flowers under FN lighting had higher pollination success than flowers under either PN lighting or unlit controls, which did not significantly differ from each other. Lamp type, lighting regime, and distance from the light all significantly affected aspects of pollination quality. These results confirm that street lighting could affect plant reproduction through indirect effects mediated by nocturnal insects, and further highlight the possibility for novel lighting technologies to mitigate the effects of ALAN on ecosystems.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2150-8925 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2174  
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