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Author Ehlert, K.; Piepenbring, M.; Kollar, A.
Title Ascospore release in apple scab underlies infrared sensation Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Fungal Biology Abbreviated Journal Fungal Biol
Volume 121 Issue 12 Pages 1054-1062
Keywords Plants
Abstract The agent of apple scab disease (Venturia inaequalis) is the most common pathogen in apple cultivation. Its ascospores are released in spring, mainly during daylight hours and triggered by rain events. To investigate the causes of diurnal rhythm of ascospore dissemination of the apple scab fungus ascospore releases were examined continuously with spore traps in the orchard and with laboratory assays. One of the spore traps was illuminated at night with different light sources in each year during 2011-2015. The laboratory assays were performed with different light sources with varying wavelengths and intensities. In field and laboratory conditions only light including infrared radiation stimulated ascospore release, but not with light in the visible spectrum only. Artificial illumination during night was correlated with an increase of up to 46 % of ascospores released overnight in the field. We proved that infrared radiation induces V. inaequalis to release its spores. This is the first report in which spore discharge could be stimulated during night under field conditions.
Address Julius Kuehn-Institut, Federal Research Center for Cultivated Plants, Institute for Plant Protection in Fruit Crops and Viticulture, Schwabenheimer Strasse 101, 69221 Dossenheim, Germany
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1878-6146 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29122177 Approved no
Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2454
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Author Correa-Cano, M.E.; Goettsch, B.; Duffy, J.P.; Bennie, J.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.
Title Erosion of natural darkness in the geographic ranges of cacti Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep
Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 4347
Keywords Plants; Remote Sensing
Abstract Naturally dark nighttime environments are being widely eroded by the introduction of artificial light at night (ALAN). The biological impacts vary with the intensity and spectrum of ALAN, but have been documented from molecules to ecosystems. How globally severe these impacts are likely to be depends in large part on the relationship between the spatio-temporal distribution of ALAN and that of the geographic ranges of species. Here, we determine this relationship for the Cactaceae family. Using maps of the geographic ranges of cacti and nighttime stable light composite images for the period 1992 to 2012, we found that a high percentage of cactus species were experiencing ALAN within their ranges in 1992, and that this percentage had increased by 2012. For almost all cactus species (89.7%) the percentage of their geographic range that was lit increased from 1992-1996 to 2008-2012, often markedly. There was a significant negative relationship between the species richness of an area, and that of threatened species, and the level of ALAN. Cacti could be particularly sensitive to this widespread and ongoing intrusion of ALAN into their geographic ranges, especially when considering the potential for additive and synergistic interactions with the impacts of other anthropogenic pressures.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9FE, UK
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29531261; PMCID:PMC5847551 Approved no
Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1824
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Author Borges, R.M.
Title Dark Matters: Challenges of Nocturnal Communication Between Plants and Animals in Delivery of Pollination Services Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine Abbreviated Journal
Volume 91 Issue 1 Pages 33-42
Keywords Plants; Animals
Abstract The night is a special niche characterized by dim light, lower temperatures, and higher humidity compared to the day. Several animals have made the transition from the day into the night and have acquired unique adaptations to cope with the challenges of performing nocturnal activities. Several plant species have opted to bloom at night, possibly as a response to aridity to prevent excessive water loss through evapotranspiration since flowering is often a water-demanding process, or to protect pollen from heat stress. Nocturnal pollinators have visual adaptations to function under dim light conditions but may also trade off vision against olfaction when they are dependent on nectar-rewarding and scented flowers. Nocturnal pollinators may use CO2 and humidity cues emanating from freshly-opened flowers as indicators of nectar-rich resources. Some endothermic nocturnal insect pollinators are attracted to thermogenic flowers within which they remain to obtain heat as a reward to increase their energy budget. This review focuses on mechanisms that pollinators use to find flowers at night, and the signals that nocturnally blooming flowers may employ to attract pollinators under dim light conditions. It also indicates gaps in our knowledge. While millions of years of evolutionary time have given pollinators and plants solutions to the delivery of pollination services and to the offering of appropriate rewards, this history of successful evolution is being threatened by artificial light at night. Excessive and inappropriate illumination associated with anthropogenic activities has resulted in significant light pollution which serves to undermine life processes governed by dim light.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1832
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Author Brelsford, CC; Robson, TM
Title Blue light advances bud burst in branches of three deciduous tree species under short-day conditions Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Trees Abbreviated Journal
Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 1157-1164
Keywords Plants
Abstract During spring, utilising multiple cues allow tree species from temperate and boreal regions to coordinate their bud burst and leaf out, at the right moment to capitalise on favourable conditions for photosynthesis. Whilst the effect of blue light (400–500 nm) has been shown to increase percentage bud burst of axillary shoots of Rosa sp., the effects of blue light on spring-time bud burst of deciduous tree species have not previously been reported. We tested the hypotheses that blue light would advance spring bud burst in tree species, and that late-successional species would respond more than early-successional species, whose bud burst is primarily determined by temperature. The bud development of Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula, and Quercus robur branches, cut from dormant trees, was monitored under two light treatments of equal photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400–700 nm) and temperature, either with or without blue light, under controlled environmental conditions. In the presence of blue light, the mean time required to reach 50% bud burst was reduced by 3.3 days in Betula pendula, 6 days in Alnus glutinosa, and 6.3 days in Quercus robur. This result highlights the potential of the blue region of the solar spectrum to be used as an extra cue that could help plants to regulate their spring phenology, alongside photoperiod and temperature. Understanding how plants combine photoreceptor-mediated cues with other environmental cues such as temperature to control phenology is essential if we are to accurately predict how tree species might respond to climate change.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1847
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Author Solano-Lamphar, H.A.; Kocifaj, M.
Title Numerical research on the effects the skyglow could have in phytochromes and RQE photoreceptors of plants Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal J Environ Manage
Volume 209 Issue Pages 484-494
Keywords Plants; Skyglow
Abstract The increase of artificial light at night has a terrible impact on organisms with nightlife patterns such as a migration, nutrition, reproduction and collective interaction. Plants are not free from this issue as they have life cycle events occurring not only yearly but also daily. Such events relate to daytime variations with seasons in which the flowers of deciduous trees bloom and the leaves of certain trees fall off and change color. A response of plants to artificial light at night still remains poorly quantified; but recent scientific research suggest that skyglow can disturb plants processes. For instance, low levels of light affect deciduous plants, which shed their leaves as days grow short in the fall. In this paper we model skyglow considering the features of artificial light that can affect natural processes of plants during the night. A case-study was conducted to mimic skyglow effects in real location for which experimental data exist. In our numerical simulations we found that some lighting systems can have an effect on plant photoreceptors and affect the phenology of plants. Specifically, the lamps that emit the electromagnetic energy in a wide spectral range can have greater effect on the photosensitivity of the plants. We believe the results obtained here will motivate botanists to make a targeted experiment to verify or challenge our findings. If the night light can change plant behavior under some conditions, it can have significant implications in botany, biology, or even agriculture.
Address ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska Road 9, 845 03, Bratislava, Slovak Republic; Faculty of Mathematics, Physics, and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynska Dolina, 842 48, Bratislava, Slovakia. Electronic address: kocifaj@savba.sk
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0301-4797 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29316469 Approved no
Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1854
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