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Author Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Cruse, D.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Cascading effects of artificial light at night: resource-mediated control of herbivores in a grassland ecosystem Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci  
  Volume 2015 Issue Pages (down) 20140131  
  Keywords Ecology; light pollution; photopollution; artificial light at night; biotic interactions; community-level; bottom-up effects; grasslands; herbivores; invertebrates; pea aphid; Acyrthosiphon pisum; plants; insects  
  Abstract Artificial light at night has a wide range of biological effects on both plants and animals. Here, we review mechanisms by which artificial light at night may restructure ecological communities by modifying the interactions between species. Such mechanisms may be top-down (predator, parasite or grazer controlled), bottom-up (resource-controlled) or involve non-trophic processes, such as pollination, seed dispersal or competition. We present results from an experiment investigating both top-down and bottom-up effects of artificial light at night on the population density of pea aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum in a diverse artificial grassland community in the presence and absence of predators and under low-level light of different spectral composition. We found no evidence for top-down control of A. pisum in this system, but did find evidence for bottom-up effects mediated through the impact of light on flower head density in a leguminous food plant. These results suggest that physiological effects of light on a plant species within a diverse plant community can have detectable demographic effects on a specialist herbivore.  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn TR10 9FE, UK; k.j.gaston@exeter.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title The biological impacts of artificial light at night: from molecules to communities Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1128  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Rydin, C; Bolinder, K url  doi
openurl 
  Title Moonlight pollination in the gymnosperm Ephedra (Gnetales) Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Biology Letters Abbreviated Journal Biol. Lett.  
  Volume 11 Issue 4 Pages (down) 20140993  
  Keywords Plants; anemophily; entomophily; lunar phases; nocturnal insects; lunar cycle; light at night; Ephedra; Ephedra distachya; pollination  
  Abstract Most gymnosperms are wind-pollinated, but some are insect-pollinated, and in Ephedra (Gnetales), both wind pollination and insect pollination occur. Little is, however, known about mechanisms and evolution of pollination syndromes in gymnosperms. Based on four seasons of field studies, we show an unexpected correlation between pollination and the phases of the moon in one of our studied species, Ephedra foeminea. It is pollinated by dipterans and lepidopterans, most of them nocturnal, and its pollination coincides with the full moon of July. This may be adaptive in two ways. Many nocturnal insects navigate using the moon. Further, the spectacular reflection of the full-moonlight in the pollination drops is the only apparent means of nocturnal attraction of insects in these plants. In the sympatric but wind-pollinated Ephedra distachya, pollination is not correlated to the full moon but occurs at approximately the same dates every year. The lunar correlation has probably been lost in most species of Ephedra subsequent an evolutionary shift to wind pollination in the clade. When the services of insects are no longer needed for successful pollination, the adaptive value of correlating pollination with the full moon is lost, and conceivably also the trait.  
  Address Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm 106 91, Sweden  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1143  
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Author Ardavani, O.; Zerefos, S.; Doulos, L.T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Redesigning the exterior lighting as part of the urban landscape: The role of transgenic bioluminescent plants in mediterranean urban and suburban lighting environments Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Cleaner Production Abbreviated Journal Journal of Cleaner Production  
  Volume 242 Issue Pages (down) 118477  
  Keywords Plants; Lighting  
  Abstract This research discusses the feasibility of replacing or supporting artificial lighting with Transgenic Bioluminescent Plants (TBP), as a means of minimizing light pollution, reducing electrical energy consumption and de-carbonizing urban and suburban outdoor environments, creating sustainable conditions and enriching the quality of life. Until now, no information is given about the light output of any TBPs and the question “Are the TBPs capable of producing the necessary lighting levels for exterior lighting?” is unanswered. For this reason, a new methodology is proposed for selecting and analyzing the lighting output potential of transgenic plants ted for specific climatic conditions. This methodology considers growth and reduction factors, as well as a formulae for estimating the plants’ luminous output by performing light measurements. Results show that transgenic plants in medium growth can emit a median luminous flux of up to 57 lm, a value that can definitely support low lighting requirements when used in large numbers of plants. From the lighting measurements and calculations performed in this research, the light output of the TBPs for a typical road with 5m width was found equal to 2lx. The amount of plants required was 40 at each side of the road for every 30m of streets with P6 road class. The results show that the use of bioluminescent plants can actually contribute to the reduction of energy consumption, concerning only the lighting criterium, thus creating an enormous opportunity for a new state-of- the-art market and research that could potentially minimize CO2 emissions and light pollution, improve urban and suburban microclimate, mitigate the effects of climate change, as well as provide an alternative means of lighting affecting both outdoor lighting design and landscape planning in suburban and urban settings. Moreover, further research should be applied considering also other possible ecological impacts before applying TBPs for exterior lighting applications.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0959-6526 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2711  
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Author Zhang, B.; Zhang, H.; Jing, Q.; Wang, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light pollution on the growth, physiology and chlorophyll fluorescence response of landscape plant perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Ecological Indicators Abbreviated Journal Ecological Indicators  
  Volume 115 Issue Pages (down) 106448  
  Keywords Plants  
  Abstract Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was commonly used for urban green planting such as lawns, which was not only affected by sunlight, but also by light pollution caused by night artificial lighting. In order to see the ryegrass growth, physiological characters and chlorophyll fluorescence response to light pollution and provide the suitable lighting time, 6 different artificial lighting times (24/0 h, 22/2 h, 20/4 h, 18/6 h, 16/8 h and 14/10 h) were conducted in growth chambers. There were significant systematic differences in perennial ryegrass growth characters in seed germination rate, leaf length (LL) and leaf weight (LW) (F = 47.99, 28.34, 13.47, respectively; P < 0.01) while under 16/8h lighting time treatment which had the highest values and the increasing lighting time decreased the growth. It had the best effect under 16/8h lighting time treatment on leaf physiological reactions and also significant. The maximum curvature point temperature (TCC) was significant different (F = 28.08, P < 0.01). The relative variable fluorescence differences at 2 ms (VJ) was increased with the lighting time increased (F = 20.25, P < 0.01). The results of reaction center (RC) of PSII under 6 lighting times also had significant differences. For the result of the yield and efficiency of electron transport chain (ETC), Fv/Fm (φP0), ψ0 and φE0 showed the significantly increased trend with the lighting time decreased while the φD0 was decreased. The shape of the OJIP curves was sensitive to the lighting times which showed that with the increasing lighting times the chlorophyll fluorescence intensity changed and shifted the fluorescence curve lower. Leaf light-response curves (LC) were also significant under 6 lighting times. Significant positive correlations were found between leaf physiological characters (SP, SC, Chl a, Chl b, Chl a + b, WP and TCC) and J-I-P test chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (PIABS, ABS/RC and TR0/RC) except ET0/RC while the correlation with DI0/RC was significant negative. There were significant positive correlations between leaf physiological characters (SP, SC, Chl a, Chl b, Chl a + b, WP and TCC) and φP0, φE0, ψ0 while the relationships with φD0 were significantly negative. Nighttime artificial lighting acted as a depressor of the fitness of photosynthesis and growth characters, via the changing of the photosynthetic apparatus.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1470160X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2905  
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Author Nelson, J.A.; Bugbee, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Economic analysis of greenhouse lighting: light emitting diodes vs. high intensity discharge fixtures Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 9 Issue 6 Pages (down) e99010  
  Keywords Plants  
  Abstract Lighting technologies for plant growth are improving rapidly, providing numerous options for supplemental lighting in greenhouses. Here we report the photosynthetic (400-700 nm) photon efficiency and photon distribution pattern of two double-ended HPS fixtures, five mogul-base HPS fixtures, ten LED fixtures, three ceramic metal halide fixtures, and two fluorescent fixtures. The two most efficient LED and the two most efficient double-ended HPS fixtures had nearly identical efficiencies at 1.66 to 1.70 micromoles per joule. These four fixtures represent a dramatic improvement over the 1.02 micromoles per joule efficiency of the mogul-base HPS fixtures that are in common use. The best ceramic metal halide and fluorescent fixtures had efficiencies of 1.46 and 0.95 micromoles per joule, respectively. We also calculated the initial capital cost of fixtures per photon delivered and determined that LED fixtures cost five to ten times more than HPS fixtures. The five-year electric plus fixture cost per mole of photons is thus 2.3 times higher for LED fixtures, due to high capital costs. Compared to electric costs, our analysis indicates that the long-term maintenance costs are small for both technologies. If widely spaced benches are a necessary part of a production system, the unique ability of LED fixtures to efficiently focus photons on specific areas can be used to improve the photon capture by plant canopies. Our analysis demonstrates, however, that the cost per photon delivered is higher in these systems, regardless of fixture category. The lowest lighting system costs are realized when an efficient fixture is coupled with effective canopy photon capture.  
  Address Crop Physiology Laboratory, Department of Plant Soils and Climate, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, United States of America  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24905835; PMCID:PMC4048233 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2233  
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