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Author Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Cruse, D.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.; Lewis, O.
Title Artificial light at night causes top-down and bottom-up trophic effects on invertebrate populations Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol
Volume 55 Issue 6 Pages 2698-2706
Keywords Ecology; Animals; Plants
Abstract Globally, many ecosystems are exposed to artificial light at night. Nighttime lighting has direct biological impacts on species at all trophic levels. However, the effects of artificial light on biotic interactions remain, for the most part, to be determined.

We exposed experimental mesocosms containing combinations of grassland plants and invertebrate herbivores and predators to illumination at night over a 3‐year period to simulate conditions under different common forms of street lighting.

We demonstrate both top‐down (predation‐controlled) and bottom‐up (resource‐controlled) impacts of artificial light at night in grassland communities. The impacts on invertebrate herbivore abundance were wavelength‐dependent and mediated via other trophic levels.

White LED lighting decreased the abundance of a generalist herbivore mollusc by 55% in the presence of a visual predator, but not in its absence, while monochromatic amber light (with a peak wavelength similar to low‐pressure sodium lighting) decreased abundance of a specialist herbivore aphid (by 17%) by reducing the cover and flower abundance of its main food plant in the system. Artificial white light also significantly increased the food plant's foliar carbon to nitrogen ratio.

We conclude that exposure to artificial light at night can trigger ecological effects spanning trophic levels, and that the nature of such impacts depends on the wavelengths emitted by the lighting technology employed.

Policy implications. Our results confirm that artificial light at night, at illuminance levels similar to roadside vegetation, can have population effects mediated by both top‐down and bottom‐up effects on ecosystems. Given the increasing ubiquity of light pollution at night, these impacts may be widespread in the environment. These results underline the importance of minimizing ecosystem disruption by reducing light pollution in natural and seminatural ecosystems.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0021-8901 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2086
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Author Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Cruse, D.; Gaston, K.J.
Title Ecological effects of artificial light at night on wild plants Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Ecol
Volume 104 Issue 3 Pages 611-620
Keywords Plants; wild plants; photobiology; Circadian; Ecophysiology; light cycles; light pollution; photoperiodism; photopollution; physiology; sky glow; urban ecology
Abstract 1.Plants use light as a source of both energy and information. Plant physiological responses to light, and interactions between plants and animals (such as herbivory and pollination), have evolved under a more or less stable regime of 24-hour cycles of light and darkness, and, outside of the tropics, seasonal variation in daylength.

2.The rapid spread of outdoor electric lighting across the globe over the past century has caused an unprecedented disruption to these natural light cycles. Artificial light is widespread in the environment, varying in intensity by several orders of magnitude from faint skyglow reflected from distant cities to direct illumination of urban and suburban vegetation.

3.In many cases artificial light in the nighttime environment is sufficiently bright to induce a physiological response in plants, affecting their phenology, growth form and resource allocation. The physiology, behaviour and ecology of herbivores and pollinators is also likely to be impacted by artificial light. Thus, understanding the ecological consequences of artificial light at night is critical to determine the full impact of human activity on ecosystems.

4.Synthesis. Understanding the impacts of artificial nighttime light on wild plants and natural vegetation requires linking the knowledge gained from over a century of experimental research on the impacts of light on plants in the laboratory and greenhouse with knowledge of the intensity, spatial distribution, spectral composition and timing of light in the nighttime environment. To understand fully the extent of these impacts requires conceptual models that can (i) characterise the highly heterogeneous nature of the nighttime light environment at a scale relevant to plant physiology, and (ii) scale physiological responses to predict impacts at the level of the whole plant, population, community and ecosystem.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, United Kimgdom; j.j.bennie(at)exeter.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0022-0477 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1350
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Author Eng, R.Y.N.; Tsujita, M.J.; Grodzinski, B.
Title The effects of supplementary HPS lighting and carbon dioxide enrichment on the vegetative growth, nutritional status and flowering characteristics ofChrysanthemum morifoliumRamat Type Journal Article
Year 1985 Publication Journal of Horticultural Science Abbreviated Journal Journal of Horticultural Science
Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 389-395
Keywords Plants
Abstract Supplementary high pressure sodium (HPS) lighting (140 µmol m−2s−1) and CO2 enrichment (1375 µl l−1) improved the vegetative growth of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv Dramatic by increases in stem length, stem diameter, root weight ratio, dry weight, relative growth and net assimilation rates. Three-week-old chrysanthemums grown under CO2 enrichment and HPS lighting had lower leaf weight and stem weight ratios as well as lower foliar nutrient content than those grown under ambient CO2 and natural light. Plants grown on to maturity under CO2 enrichment and supplementary HPS lighting had the longest stem lengths, the most flowers and greatest increase in dry weight. The combination of both additional light and CO2 was superior to either factor used alone. With 24 h HPS supplementary lighting CO2 enrichment was most effective in improving vegetative growth and flower quality when applied during the daytime. Night CO2 enrichment was not commercially beneficial at the light levels employed in this study.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0022-1589 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2373
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Author Knop, E.; Zoller, L.; Ryser, R.; Gerpe, C.; Hörler, M.; Fontaine, C.
Title Artificial light at night as a new threat to pollination Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature
Volume 548 Issue 7666 Pages 206-209
Keywords Plants; Animals
Abstract Pollinators are declining worldwide and this has raised concerns for a parallel decline in the essential pollination service they provide to both crops and wild plants. Anthropogenic drivers linked to this decline include habitat changes, intensive agriculture, pesticides, invasive alien species, spread of pathogens and climate change1. Recently, the rapid global increase in artificial light at night has been proposed to be a new threat to terrestrial ecosystems; the consequences of this increase for ecosystem function are mostly unknown. Here we show that artificial light at night disrupts nocturnal pollination networks and has negative consequences for plant reproductive success. In artificially illuminated plant–pollinator communities, nocturnal visits to plants were reduced by 62% compared to dark areas. Notably, this resulted in an overall 13% reduction in fruit set of a focal plant even though the plant also received numerous visits by diurnal pollinators. Furthermore, by merging diurnal and nocturnal pollination sub-networks, we show that the structure of these combined networks tends to facilitate the spread of the negative consequences of disrupted nocturnal pollination to daytime pollinator communities. Our findings demonstrate that artificial light at night is a threat to pollination and that the negative effects of artificial light at night on nocturnal pollination are predicted to propagate to the diurnal community, thereby aggravating the decline of the diurnal community. We provide perspectives on the functioning of plant–pollinator communities, showing that nocturnal pollinators are not redundant to diurnal communities and increasing our understanding of the human-induced decline in pollinators and their ecosystem service.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0028-0836 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1696
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Author Pattison, P.M.; Tsao, J.Y.; Brainard, G.C.; Bugbee, B.
Title LEDs for photons, physiology and food Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature
Volume 563 Issue 7732 Pages 493-500
Keywords Lighting; Human Health; Plants; Review
Abstract Lighting based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) not only is more energy efficient than traditional lighting, but also enables improved performance and control. The colour, intensity and distribution of light can now be controlled with unprecedented precision, enabling light to be used both as a signal for specific physiological responses in humans and plants, and as an efficient fuel for fresh food production. Here we show how a broad and improved understanding of the physiological responses to light will facilitate greater energy savings and provide health and productivity benefits that have not previously been associated with lighting.
Address Utah State University, Logan, UT, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0028-0836 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30464269 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2110
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