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Author Skvareninová, J.; Tuhárska, M.; Skvarenina, J.; Babálová, D.; Slobodníková, L.; Slobodník, B.; Stredová, H.; Mindas, J.
Title Effects of light pollution on tree phenology in the urban environment Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Moravian Geographical Reports Abbreviated Journal
Volume 25 Issue 4 Pages
Keywords Plants
Abstract Research on urban climates has been an important topic in recent years, given the growing number of city inhabitants and significant influences of climate on health. Nevertheless, far less research has focused on the impacts of light pollution, not only on humans, but also on plants and animals in the landscape. This paper reports a study measuring the intensity of light pollution and its impact on the autumn phenological phases of tree species in the town of Zvolen (Slovakia). The research was carried out at two housing estates and in the central part of the town in the period 2013–2016. The intensity of ambient nocturnal light at 18 measurement points was greater under cloudy weather than in clear weather conditions. Comparison with the ecological standard for Slovakia showed that average night light values in the town centre and in the housing estate with an older type of public lighting, exceeded the threshold value by 5 lux. Two tree species, sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina L.), demonstrated sensitivity to light pollution. The average onset of the autumn phenophases in the crown parts situated next to the light sources was delayed by 13 to 22 days, and their duration was prolonged by 6 to 9 days. There are three major results: (i) the effects of light pollution on organisms in the urban environment are documented; (ii) the results provide support for a theoretical and practical basis for better urban planning policies to mitigate light pollution effects on organisms; and (iii) some limits of the use of plant phenology as a bioindicator of climate change are presented.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1210-8812 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1799
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Author Kwak, M.; Je, S.; Cheng, H.; Seo, S.; Park, J.; Baek, S.; Khaine, I.; Lee, T.; Jang, J.; Li, Y.; Kim, H.; Lee, J.; Kim, J.; Woo, S.
Title Night Light-Adaptation Strategies for Photosynthetic Apparatus in Yellow-Poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) Exposed to Artificial Night Lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Forests Abbreviated Journal Forests
Volume 9 Issue 2 Pages 74
Keywords Plants
Abstract Plants can undergo external fluctuations in the natural light and dark cycle. The photosynthetic apparatus needs to operate in an appropriate manner to fluctuating environmental factors, especially in light. Yellow-poplar seedlings were exposed to nighttime artificial high-pressure sodium (HPS) lighting to evaluate night light-adaptation strategies for photosynthetic apparatus fitness relative to pigment contents, photosystem II photochemistry, photosynthetic parameters, histochemical analysis of reactive oxygen species, and plant biomass. As a result, seedlings exhibited dynamic changes including the enhancement of accessory pigments, the reduction of photosystem II photochemistry, increased stomatal limitation, downregulation of photosynthesis, and the decreased aboveground and belowground biomass under artificial night lighting. Histochemical analysis with 3,3′-diaminobenzidine (DAB) and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) staining indicates the accumulation of in situ superoxide radicals (O2−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in leaves exposed to the lowest level of artificial night lighting compared to control. Moreover, these leaves exposed to artificial night lighting had a lower nighttime respiration rate. These results indicated that HPS lighting during the night may act as a major factor as repressors of the fitness of photosynthesis and growth patterns, via a modification of the photosynthetic light harvesting apparatus.
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ISSN 1999-4907 ISBN Medium
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Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1809
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Author Borges, R.M.
Title Dark Matters: Challenges of Nocturnal Communication Between Plants and Animals in Delivery of Pollination Services Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine Abbreviated Journal
Volume 91 Issue 1 Pages 33-42
Keywords Plants; Animals
Abstract The night is a special niche characterized by dim light, lower temperatures, and higher humidity compared to the day. Several animals have made the transition from the day into the night and have acquired unique adaptations to cope with the challenges of performing nocturnal activities. Several plant species have opted to bloom at night, possibly as a response to aridity to prevent excessive water loss through evapotranspiration since flowering is often a water-demanding process, or to protect pollen from heat stress. Nocturnal pollinators have visual adaptations to function under dim light conditions but may also trade off vision against olfaction when they are dependent on nectar-rewarding and scented flowers. Nocturnal pollinators may use CO2 and humidity cues emanating from freshly-opened flowers as indicators of nectar-rich resources. Some endothermic nocturnal insect pollinators are attracted to thermogenic flowers within which they remain to obtain heat as a reward to increase their energy budget. This review focuses on mechanisms that pollinators use to find flowers at night, and the signals that nocturnally blooming flowers may employ to attract pollinators under dim light conditions. It also indicates gaps in our knowledge. While millions of years of evolutionary time have given pollinators and plants solutions to the delivery of pollination services and to the offering of appropriate rewards, this history of successful evolution is being threatened by artificial light at night. Excessive and inappropriate illumination associated with anthropogenic activities has resulted in significant light pollution which serves to undermine life processes governed by dim light.
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Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1832
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Author Brelsford, CC; Robson, TM
Title Blue light advances bud burst in branches of three deciduous tree species under short-day conditions Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Trees Abbreviated Journal
Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 1157-1164
Keywords Plants
Abstract During spring, utilising multiple cues allow tree species from temperate and boreal regions to coordinate their bud burst and leaf out, at the right moment to capitalise on favourable conditions for photosynthesis. Whilst the effect of blue light (400–500 nm) has been shown to increase percentage bud burst of axillary shoots of Rosa sp., the effects of blue light on spring-time bud burst of deciduous tree species have not previously been reported. We tested the hypotheses that blue light would advance spring bud burst in tree species, and that late-successional species would respond more than early-successional species, whose bud burst is primarily determined by temperature. The bud development of Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula, and Quercus robur branches, cut from dormant trees, was monitored under two light treatments of equal photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400–700 nm) and temperature, either with or without blue light, under controlled environmental conditions. In the presence of blue light, the mean time required to reach 50% bud burst was reduced by 3.3 days in Betula pendula, 6 days in Alnus glutinosa, and 6.3 days in Quercus robur. This result highlights the potential of the blue region of the solar spectrum to be used as an extra cue that could help plants to regulate their spring phenology, alongside photoperiod and temperature. Understanding how plants combine photoreceptor-mediated cues with other environmental cues such as temperature to control phenology is essential if we are to accurately predict how tree species might respond to climate change.
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Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1847
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Author Grubisic, M.; van Grunsven, R.H.A.; Manfrin, A.; Monaghan, M.T.; Hölker, F.
Title A transition to white LED increases ecological impacts of nocturnal illumination on aquatic primary producers in a lowland agricultural drainage ditch Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Environmental Pollution Abbreviated Journal Environmental Pollution
Volume 240 Issue Pages 630-638
Keywords Plants; Ecology
Abstract The increasing use of artificial light at night (ALAN) has led to exposure of freshwater ecosystems to light pollution worldwide. Simultaneously, the spectral composition of nocturnal illumination is changing, following the current shift in outdoor lighting technologies from traditional light sources to light emitting diodes (LED). LEDs emit broad-spectrum white light, with a significant amount of photosynthetically active radiation, and typically a high content of blue light that regulates circadian rhythms in many organisms. While effects of the shift to LED have been investigated in nocturnal animals, its impact on primary producers is unknown. We performed three field experiments in a lowland agricultural drainage ditch to assess the impacts of a transition from high-pressure sodium (HPS) to white LED illumination (color temperature 4000 K) on primary producers in periphyton. In all experiments, we compared biomass and pigment composition of periphyton grown under a natural light regime to that of periphyton exposed to nocturnal HPS or, consecutively, LED light of intensities commonly found in urban waters (approximately 20 lux). Periphyton was collected in time series (1–13 weeks). We found no effect of HPS light on periphyton biomass; however, following a shift to LED the biomass decreased up to 62%. Neither light source had a substantial effect on pigment composition. The contrasting effects of the two light sources on biomass may be explained by differences in their spectral composition, and in particular the blue content. Our results suggest that spectral composition of the light source plays a role in determining the impacts of ALAN on periphyton and that the ongoing transition to LED may increase the ecological impacts of artificial lighting on aquatic primary producers. Reduced biomass in the base of the food web can impact ecosystem functions such as productivity and food supply for higher trophic levels in nocturnally-lit ecosystems.
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ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1900
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