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Author Knop, E.; Zoller, L.; Ryser, R.; Gerpe, C.; Hörler, M.; Fontaine, C.
Title Artificial light at night as a new threat to pollination Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication (up) Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature
Volume 548 Issue 7666 Pages 206-209
Keywords Plants; Animals
Abstract Pollinators are declining worldwide and this has raised concerns for a parallel decline in the essential pollination service they provide to both crops and wild plants. Anthropogenic drivers linked to this decline include habitat changes, intensive agriculture, pesticides, invasive alien species, spread of pathogens and climate change1. Recently, the rapid global increase in artificial light at night has been proposed to be a new threat to terrestrial ecosystems; the consequences of this increase for ecosystem function are mostly unknown. Here we show that artificial light at night disrupts nocturnal pollination networks and has negative consequences for plant reproductive success. In artificially illuminated plant–pollinator communities, nocturnal visits to plants were reduced by 62% compared to dark areas. Notably, this resulted in an overall 13% reduction in fruit set of a focal plant even though the plant also received numerous visits by diurnal pollinators. Furthermore, by merging diurnal and nocturnal pollination sub-networks, we show that the structure of these combined networks tends to facilitate the spread of the negative consequences of disrupted nocturnal pollination to daytime pollinator communities. Our findings demonstrate that artificial light at night is a threat to pollination and that the negative effects of artificial light at night on nocturnal pollination are predicted to propagate to the diurnal community, thereby aggravating the decline of the diurnal community. We provide perspectives on the functioning of plant–pollinator communities, showing that nocturnal pollinators are not redundant to diurnal communities and increasing our understanding of the human-induced decline in pollinators and their ecosystem service.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1696
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Author Pattison, P.M.; Tsao, J.Y.; Brainard, G.C.; Bugbee, B.
Title LEDs for photons, physiology and food Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature
Volume 563 Issue 7732 Pages 493-500
Keywords Lighting; Human Health; Plants; Review
Abstract Lighting based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) not only is more energy efficient than traditional lighting, but also enables improved performance and control. The colour, intensity and distribution of light can now be controlled with unprecedented precision, enabling light to be used both as a signal for specific physiological responses in humans and plants, and as an efficient fuel for fresh food production. Here we show how a broad and improved understanding of the physiological responses to light will facilitate greater energy savings and provide health and productivity benefits that have not previously been associated with lighting.
Address Utah State University, Logan, UT, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30464269 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2110
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Author Kirschey, T.; Meisel, J.
Title Augen in der Landschaft Seen und Stillgewässer Nordostdeutschlands. Type Journal Article
Year 2008 Publication (up) Naturmagazin Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 4-11
Keywords Plants
Abstract
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 661
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Author Taylor, G.; Davies, W.J.
Title The Control Of Leaf Growth Of Betula And Acer By Photoenvironment Type Journal Article
Year 1985 Publication (up) New Phytologist Abbreviated Journal New Phytol
Volume 101 Issue 2 Pages 259-268
Keywords Plants
Abstract Leaf extension of one‐year‐old seedlings of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.), was measured using linear variable transducers (LVDTs) interfaced to a microcomputer. Birch and sycamore seedlings exhibited contrasting patterns of leaf extension during a diurnal cycle with a 16 h photoperiod. Birch leaves grew more rapidly when illuminated; growth during the photoperiod was approximately doubled when compared with growth in the dark. Mean relative growth rates ±SE at ‘lights‐on + 3 h’ and ‘lights‐off + 5 h’ were 0.0136 ± 0.0016 and 0.0066 ± 0.0005 h−1 respectively. In direct contrast, growth of sycamore leaves was increased when leaves were darkened; mean relative growth rates + SE at ‘lights‐on+3 h’ and ‘lights‐off + 5 h’ were 0.0056 ± 0.0005 and 0.0094 ± 0.0008 h‐1 respectively.

When leaves of birch and sycamore were darkened, increased leaf turgor was measured in both species, but only in sycamore was this higher night‐time turgor associated with a higher rate of leaf growth.

Cell wall extensibility (WEX), an indication of the ability of cell walls to loosen and extend irreversibly, and cell surface pH were assessed in darkened and illuminated leaves of both species. An increase in WEX was measured when birch leaves were illuminated (P≤ 0.001) and this was accompanied by a decline in cell surface pH (P≤ 0.001). However, when leaves of sycamore were illuminated, WEX declined (P≤ 005) and cell surface pH increased (P≤ 0.001).

The ability of these species to survive beneath a woodland canopy is discussed in relation to the cellular factors controlling their leaf growth.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0028-646X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1992
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Author Hey, M.H.; DiBiase, E.; Roach, D.A.; Carr, D.E.; Haynes, K.J.
Title Interactions between artificial light at night, soil moisture, and plant density affect the growth of a perennial wildflower Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication (up) Oecologia Abbreviated Journal Oecologia
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Plants; Community ecology; Light pollution; Milkweed; Precipitation; Sensory pollution
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) has been shown to alter aspects of plant growth, but we are not aware of any studies that have examined whether the effects of ALAN on plants depend upon the backdrop of variation in other abiotic factors that plants encounter in field populations. We conducted a field experiment to investigate whether ALAN affects the growth and anti-herbivore defenses of common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca, and whether the effects of ALAN are influenced by plant density or soil moisture content. Artificial light at night, soil moisture, and plant density were manipulated according to a split-plot factorial design. Although increasing soil moisture by watering had no significant effects on latex exudation, attributes of plant growth generally responded positively to watering. The basal stem diameter (BSD) and height of plants were affected by ALAN x soil moisture interactions. For both of these variables, the positive effects of ALAN were greater for plants that were not watered than for plants that were. Basal stem diameter was also affected by an ALAN x plant density interaction, and the positive effect of ALAN on BSD was greater in the low-density treatment than in the high-density treatment. Our results demonstrate that the effects of ALAN on plant growth can be altered by soil moisture and plant density. Consequently, the effects of ALAN on plants in nature may not be consistent with existing frameworks that do not account for critical abiotic variables such as water availability or biotic interactions between plants such as competition.
Address Blandy Experimental Farm, University of Virginia, 400 Blandy Farm Lane, Boyce, VA, 22620, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0029-8549 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32533357 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3003
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