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Author Maggi, E.; Bertocci, I.; Benedetti-Cecchi, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light pollution enhances temporal variability of photosynthetic activity in mature and developing biofilm Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Hydrobiologia Abbreviated Journal Hydrobiologia  
  Volume 847 Issue 7 Pages 1793-1802  
  Keywords Plants; Ecology  
  Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) has been recently recognized as a threat for aquatic systems, but a comprehensive knowledge of its effects is still lacking. A fundamental question is whether and how ALAN might affect temporal variability of communities, thus undermining the stability of mature assemblages or influencing the colonization process. Here we investigated the role of ALAN on temporal variability of total biomass and maximum photosynthetic efficiency of marine autotrophic biofilms colonizing Mediterranean high-shore rock surfaces while controlling for density of their main grazers. Results showed stability in total biomass, but an increase in maximum photosynthetic efficiency from unlit to lit conditions, which suggested a temporal change in composition and/or abundance of different taxa within mature assemblages. The effect was weaker during the colonization process; in this case, density of grazers acted in the opposite direction of ALAN. We suggest that the addition of light at times when it would not be naturally present may affect the temporal variability of a variety of functioning in aquatic systems, depending on species-specific sensitivities to ALAN within microbial assemblages and/or indirect effects mediated by their consumers. We highlight to further investigate the role of this emergent topic in aquatic ecology.  
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  ISSN 0018-8158 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial 3146  
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Author Boom, M.P.; Spoelstra, K.; Biere, A.; Knop, E.; Visser, M.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Pollination and fruit infestation under artificial light at night:light colour matters Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 18389  
  Keywords Plants; Ecology  
  Abstract Rapid human population growth and associated urbanization lead to increased artificial illumination of the environment. By changing the natural light-dark cycle, artificial lighting can affect the functioning of natural ecosystems. Many plants rely on insects in order to reproduce but these insects are known to be disturbed by artificial light. Therefore, plant-insect interactions may be affected when exposed to artificial illumination. These effects can potentially be reduced by using different light spectra than white light. We studied the effect of artificial lighting on plant-insect interactions in the Silene latifolia-Hadena bicruris system using a field set-up with four different light treatments: red, green, white and a dark control. We compared the proportion of fertilized flowers and fertilized ovules as well as the infestation of fruits by Hadena bicruris, a pollinating seed predator. We found no difference in the proportion of fertilized flowers among the treatments. The proportion of fruits infested by H. bicruris was however significantly higher under green and white light and a significantly lower proportion of fertilized ovules was found under green light. We show that artificial light with different colours impacts plant-insect interactions differently, with direct consequences for plant fitness.  
  Address Department of Animal Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), P.O. Box 50, 6700 AB, Wageningen, The Netherlands. m.visser@nioo.knaw.nl  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:33110135; PMCID:PMC7591485 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3189  
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Author Falcon, J.; Torriglia, A.; Attia, D.; Vienot, F.; Gronfier, C.; Behar-Cohen, F.; Martinsons, C.; Hicks, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Exposure to Artificial Light at Night and the Consequences for Flora, Fauna, and Ecosystems Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Frontiers in Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Front Neurosci  
  Volume 14 Issue Pages 602796  
  Keywords Review; Animals; Plants; Ecology; anthropogenic impact; artificial-light-at-night; biological clocks; ecosystems; light-emitting-diodes; photoreception  
  Abstract The present review draws together wide-ranging studies performed over the last decades that catalogue the effects of artificial-light-at-night (ALAN) upon living species and their environment. We provide an overview of the tremendous variety of light-detection strategies which have evolved in living organisms – unicellular, plants and animals, covering chloroplasts (plants), and the plethora of ocular and extra-ocular organs (animals). We describe the visual pigments which permit photo-detection, paying attention to their spectral characteristics, which extend from the ultraviolet into infrared. We discuss how organisms use light information in a way crucial for their development, growth and survival: phototropism, phototaxis, photoperiodism, and synchronization of circadian clocks. These aspects are treated in depth, as their perturbation underlies much of the disruptive effects of ALAN. The review goes into detail on circadian networks in living organisms, since these fundamental features are of critical importance in regulating the interface between environment and body. Especially, hormonal synthesis and secretion are often under circadian and circannual control, hence perturbation of the clock will lead to hormonal imbalance. The review addresses how the ubiquitous introduction of light-emitting diode technology may exacerbate, or in some cases reduce, the generalized ever-increasing light pollution. Numerous examples are given of how widespread exposure to ALAN is perturbing many aspects of plant and animal behaviour and survival: foraging, orientation, migration, seasonal reproduction, colonization and more. We examine the potential problems at the level of individual species and populations and extend the debate to the consequences for ecosystems. We stress, through a few examples, the synergistic harmful effects resulting from the impacts of ALAN combined with other anthropogenic pressures, which often impact the neuroendocrine loops in vertebrates. The article concludes by debating how these anthropogenic changes could be mitigated by more reasonable use of available technology – for example by restricting illumination to more essential areas and hours, directing lighting to avoid wasteful radiation and selecting spectral emissions, to reduce impact on circadian clocks. We end by discussing how society should take into account the potentially major consequences that ALAN has on the natural world and the repercussions for ongoing human health and welfare.  
  Address Inserm, CNRS, Institut des Neurosciences Cellulaires et Integratives, Universite de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1662-453X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:33304237; PMCID:PMC7701298 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3245  
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Author Elkins, C.; Van Iersel, M. W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Supplemental Far-red Light-emitting Diode Light Increases Growth of Foxglove Seedlings Under Sole-source Lighting Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication HortTechnology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 30 Issue 5 Pages 564-569  
  Keywords Plants  
  Abstract Seedlings may be grown indoors where environmental conditions can be precisely controlled to ensure consistent and reliable production. The optimal spectrum for production under sole-source lighting is currently unknown. Far-red light (λ = 700–800 nm) typically is not a significant part of the spectrum of light-emitting diode (LED) grow lights. However, far-red light is photosynthetically active and can enhance leaf elongation, which may result in larger leaves and increased light interception. We hypothesized that adding far-red light to sole-source lighting would increase the growth of ‘Dalmatian Peach’ foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) seedlings grown under white LED lights, potentially shortening production times. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of far-red light intensities, ranging from 4.0 to 68.8 µmol·m−2·s−1, on the growth and morphology of foxglove seedlings. Foxglove seedlings were grown in a growth chamber with a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 186 ± 6.4 μmol·m−2·s−1 and supplemental far-red light intensities ranging from 4.0 to 68.8 µmol·m−2·s−1. As far-red light increased, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, plant height, and plant height/number of leaves increased by 38% (P = 0.004), 20% (P = 0.029), 38% (P = 0.025), and 34% (P = 0.024), respectively, while root weight fraction decreased 16% (P = 0.034). Although we expected supplemental far-red light to induce leaf and/or stem expansion, specific leaf area and compactness (two measures of morphology) were unaffected. Because a 37% increase in total photon flux density (PPFD plus far-red light) resulted in a 34.5% increase in total plant dry weight, the increased growth likely was due to increased photosynthesis rather than a shade-acclimation response. The growth response was linear across the 4.0 to 68.8 µmol·m−2·s−1 range of far-fed light tested, so we were unable to determine a saturating far-red photon flux density.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial 3266  
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Author Dzakovich, M.; Gómez, C.; Mitchell, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Tomatoes Grown with Light-emitting Diodes or High-pressure Sodium Supplemental Lights have Similar Fruit-quality Attributes Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication HortScience Abbreviated Journal HortScience  
  Volume 50 Issue 10 Pages 1498-1502  
  Keywords Plants; greenhouse tomato production; HPS; LED; physicochemical testing; sensory panels; Solanum lycopersium; tomato; high-pressure sodium; agriculture; horticulture; light-emitting diode  
  Abstract Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are an attractive alternative to high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps for plant growth because of their energy-saving potential. However, the effects of supplementing broad-waveband solar light with narrow-waveband LED light on the sensory attributes of greenhouse-grown tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) are largely unknown. Three separate studies investigating the effect of supplemental light quantity and quality on physicochemical and organoleptic properties of greenhouse-grown tomato fruit were conducted over 4- or 5-month intervals during 2012 and 2013. Tomato cultivars Success, Komeett, and Rebelski were grown hydroponically within a high-wire trellising system in a glass-glazed greenhouse. Chromacity, Brix, titratable acidity, electrical conductivity (EC), and pH measurements of fruit extracts indicated plant response differences between lighting treatments. In sensory panels, tasters ranked tomatoes for color, acidity, and sweetness using an objective scale, whereas color, aroma, texture, sweetness, acidity, aftertaste, and overall approval were ranked using hedonic scales. By collecting both physicochemical as well as sensory data, this study was able to determine whether statistically significant physicochemical parameters of tomato fruit also reflected consumer perception of fruit quality. Sensory panels indicated that statistically significant physicochemical differences were not noticeable to tasters and that tasters engaged in blind testing could not discern between tomatoes from different supplemental lighting treatments or unsupplemented controls. Growers interested in reducing supplemental lighting energy consumption by using intracanopy LED (IC-LED) supplemental lighting need not be concerned that the quality of their tomato fruits will be negatively affected by narrow-band supplemental radiation at the intensities and wavelengths used in this study.  
  Address Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, 625 Agriculture Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2010  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher (up) American Society for Horticultural Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0018-5345 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1301  
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