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Author Hey, M.H.; DiBiase, E.; Roach, D.A.; Carr, D.E.; Haynes, K.J.
Title Interactions between artificial light at night, soil moisture, and plant density affect the growth of a perennial wildflower Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Oecologia Abbreviated Journal Oecologia
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Plants; Community ecology; Light pollution; Milkweed; Precipitation; Sensory pollution
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) has been shown to alter aspects of plant growth, but we are not aware of any studies that have examined whether the effects of ALAN on plants depend upon the backdrop of variation in other abiotic factors that plants encounter in field populations. We conducted a field experiment to investigate whether ALAN affects the growth and anti-herbivore defenses of common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca, and whether the effects of ALAN are influenced by plant density or soil moisture content. Artificial light at night, soil moisture, and plant density were manipulated according to a split-plot factorial design. Although increasing soil moisture by watering had no significant effects on latex exudation, attributes of plant growth generally responded positively to watering. The basal stem diameter (BSD) and height of plants were affected by ALAN x soil moisture interactions. For both of these variables, the positive effects of ALAN were greater for plants that were not watered than for plants that were. Basal stem diameter was also affected by an ALAN x plant density interaction, and the positive effect of ALAN on BSD was greater in the low-density treatment than in the high-density treatment. Our results demonstrate that the effects of ALAN on plant growth can be altered by soil moisture and plant density. Consequently, the effects of ALAN on plants in nature may not be consistent with existing frameworks that do not account for critical abiotic variables such as water availability or biotic interactions between plants such as competition.
Address Blandy Experimental Farm, University of Virginia, 400 Blandy Farm Lane, Boyce, VA, 22620, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language (up) Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0029-8549 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32533357 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3003
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Author Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Cruse, D.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.
Title Cascading effects of artificial light at night: resource-mediated control of herbivores in a grassland ecosystem Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
Volume 2015 Issue Pages 20140131
Keywords Ecology; light pollution; photopollution; artificial light at night; biotic interactions; community-level; bottom-up effects; grasslands; herbivores; invertebrates; pea aphid; Acyrthosiphon pisum; plants; insects
Abstract Artificial light at night has a wide range of biological effects on both plants and animals. Here, we review mechanisms by which artificial light at night may restructure ecological communities by modifying the interactions between species. Such mechanisms may be top-down (predator, parasite or grazer controlled), bottom-up (resource-controlled) or involve non-trophic processes, such as pollination, seed dispersal or competition. We present results from an experiment investigating both top-down and bottom-up effects of artificial light at night on the population density of pea aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum in a diverse artificial grassland community in the presence and absence of predators and under low-level light of different spectral composition. We found no evidence for top-down control of A. pisum in this system, but did find evidence for bottom-up effects mediated through the impact of light on flower head density in a leguminous food plant. These results suggest that physiological effects of light on a plant species within a diverse plant community can have detectable demographic effects on a specialist herbivore.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn TR10 9FE, UK; k.j.gaston@exeter.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language (up) English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title The biological impacts of artificial light at night: from molecules to communities Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1128
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Author Rydin, C; Bolinder, K
Title Moonlight pollination in the gymnosperm Ephedra (Gnetales) Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Biology Letters Abbreviated Journal Biol. Lett.
Volume 11 Issue 4 Pages 20140993
Keywords Plants; anemophily; entomophily; lunar phases; nocturnal insects; lunar cycle; light at night; Ephedra; Ephedra distachya; pollination
Abstract Most gymnosperms are wind-pollinated, but some are insect-pollinated, and in Ephedra (Gnetales), both wind pollination and insect pollination occur. Little is, however, known about mechanisms and evolution of pollination syndromes in gymnosperms. Based on four seasons of field studies, we show an unexpected correlation between pollination and the phases of the moon in one of our studied species, Ephedra foeminea. It is pollinated by dipterans and lepidopterans, most of them nocturnal, and its pollination coincides with the full moon of July. This may be adaptive in two ways. Many nocturnal insects navigate using the moon. Further, the spectacular reflection of the full-moonlight in the pollination drops is the only apparent means of nocturnal attraction of insects in these plants. In the sympatric but wind-pollinated Ephedra distachya, pollination is not correlated to the full moon but occurs at approximately the same dates every year. The lunar correlation has probably been lost in most species of Ephedra subsequent an evolutionary shift to wind pollination in the clade. When the services of insects are no longer needed for successful pollination, the adaptive value of correlating pollination with the full moon is lost, and conceivably also the trait.
Address Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm 106 91, Sweden
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language (up) English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1143
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Author Dzakovich, M.; Gómez, C.; Mitchell, C.
Title Tomatoes Grown with Light-emitting Diodes or High-pressure Sodium Supplemental Lights have Similar Fruit-quality Attributes Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication HortScience Abbreviated Journal HortScience
Volume 50 Issue 10 Pages 1498-1502
Keywords Plants; greenhouse tomato production; HPS; LED; physicochemical testing; sensory panels; Solanum lycopersium; tomato; high-pressure sodium; agriculture; horticulture; light-emitting diode
Abstract Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are an attractive alternative to high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps for plant growth because of their energy-saving potential. However, the effects of supplementing broad-waveband solar light with narrow-waveband LED light on the sensory attributes of greenhouse-grown tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) are largely unknown. Three separate studies investigating the effect of supplemental light quantity and quality on physicochemical and organoleptic properties of greenhouse-grown tomato fruit were conducted over 4- or 5-month intervals during 2012 and 2013. Tomato cultivars Success, Komeett, and Rebelski were grown hydroponically within a high-wire trellising system in a glass-glazed greenhouse. Chromacity, Brix, titratable acidity, electrical conductivity (EC), and pH measurements of fruit extracts indicated plant response differences between lighting treatments. In sensory panels, tasters ranked tomatoes for color, acidity, and sweetness using an objective scale, whereas color, aroma, texture, sweetness, acidity, aftertaste, and overall approval were ranked using hedonic scales. By collecting both physicochemical as well as sensory data, this study was able to determine whether statistically significant physicochemical parameters of tomato fruit also reflected consumer perception of fruit quality. Sensory panels indicated that statistically significant physicochemical differences were not noticeable to tasters and that tasters engaged in blind testing could not discern between tomatoes from different supplemental lighting treatments or unsupplemented controls. Growers interested in reducing supplemental lighting energy consumption by using intracanopy LED (IC-LED) supplemental lighting need not be concerned that the quality of their tomato fruits will be negatively affected by narrow-band supplemental radiation at the intensities and wavelengths used in this study.
Address Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, 625 Agriculture Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2010
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher American Society for Horticultural Science Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language (up) English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0018-5345 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1301
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Author Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Cruse, D.; Gaston, K.J.
Title Ecological effects of artificial light at night on wild plants Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Ecol
Volume 104 Issue 3 Pages 611-620
Keywords Plants; wild plants; photobiology; Circadian; Ecophysiology; light cycles; light pollution; photoperiodism; photopollution; physiology; sky glow; urban ecology
Abstract 1.Plants use light as a source of both energy and information. Plant physiological responses to light, and interactions between plants and animals (such as herbivory and pollination), have evolved under a more or less stable regime of 24-hour cycles of light and darkness, and, outside of the tropics, seasonal variation in daylength.

2.The rapid spread of outdoor electric lighting across the globe over the past century has caused an unprecedented disruption to these natural light cycles. Artificial light is widespread in the environment, varying in intensity by several orders of magnitude from faint skyglow reflected from distant cities to direct illumination of urban and suburban vegetation.

3.In many cases artificial light in the nighttime environment is sufficiently bright to induce a physiological response in plants, affecting their phenology, growth form and resource allocation. The physiology, behaviour and ecology of herbivores and pollinators is also likely to be impacted by artificial light. Thus, understanding the ecological consequences of artificial light at night is critical to determine the full impact of human activity on ecosystems.

4.Synthesis. Understanding the impacts of artificial nighttime light on wild plants and natural vegetation requires linking the knowledge gained from over a century of experimental research on the impacts of light on plants in the laboratory and greenhouse with knowledge of the intensity, spatial distribution, spectral composition and timing of light in the nighttime environment. To understand fully the extent of these impacts requires conceptual models that can (i) characterise the highly heterogeneous nature of the nighttime light environment at a scale relevant to plant physiology, and (ii) scale physiological responses to predict impacts at the level of the whole plant, population, community and ecosystem.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, United Kimgdom; j.j.bennie(at)exeter.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language (up) English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-0477 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1350
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