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Author Grubisic, M.; van Grunsven, R.H.A.; Manfrin, A.; Monaghan, M.T.; Hölker, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A transition to white LED increases ecological impacts of nocturnal illumination on aquatic primary producers in a lowland agricultural drainage ditch Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Environmental Pollution Abbreviated Journal Environmental Pollution  
  Volume (up) 240 Issue Pages 630-638  
  Keywords Plants; Ecology  
  Abstract The increasing use of artificial light at night (ALAN) has led to exposure of freshwater ecosystems to light pollution worldwide. Simultaneously, the spectral composition of nocturnal illumination is changing, following the current shift in outdoor lighting technologies from traditional light sources to light emitting diodes (LED). LEDs emit broad-spectrum white light, with a significant amount of photosynthetically active radiation, and typically a high content of blue light that regulates circadian rhythms in many organisms. While effects of the shift to LED have been investigated in nocturnal animals, its impact on primary producers is unknown. We performed three field experiments in a lowland agricultural drainage ditch to assess the impacts of a transition from high-pressure sodium (HPS) to white LED illumination (color temperature 4000 K) on primary producers in periphyton. In all experiments, we compared biomass and pigment composition of periphyton grown under a natural light regime to that of periphyton exposed to nocturnal HPS or, consecutively, LED light of intensities commonly found in urban waters (approximately 20 lux). Periphyton was collected in time series (1–13 weeks). We found no effect of HPS light on periphyton biomass; however, following a shift to LED the biomass decreased up to 62%. Neither light source had a substantial effect on pigment composition. The contrasting effects of the two light sources on biomass may be explained by differences in their spectral composition, and in particular the blue content. Our results suggest that spectral composition of the light source plays a role in determining the impacts of ALAN on periphyton and that the ongoing transition to LED may increase the ecological impacts of artificial lighting on aquatic primary producers. Reduced biomass in the base of the food web can impact ecosystem functions such as productivity and food supply for higher trophic levels in nocturnally-lit ecosystems.  
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  ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1900  
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Author Ardavani, O.; Zerefos, S.; Doulos, L.T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Redesigning the exterior lighting as part of the urban landscape: The role of transgenic bioluminescent plants in mediterranean urban and suburban lighting environments Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Cleaner Production Abbreviated Journal Journal of Cleaner Production  
  Volume (up) 242 Issue Pages 118477  
  Keywords Plants; Lighting  
  Abstract This research discusses the feasibility of replacing or supporting artificial lighting with Transgenic Bioluminescent Plants (TBP), as a means of minimizing light pollution, reducing electrical energy consumption and de-carbonizing urban and suburban outdoor environments, creating sustainable conditions and enriching the quality of life. Until now, no information is given about the light output of any TBPs and the question “Are the TBPs capable of producing the necessary lighting levels for exterior lighting?” is unanswered. For this reason, a new methodology is proposed for selecting and analyzing the lighting output potential of transgenic plants ted for specific climatic conditions. This methodology considers growth and reduction factors, as well as a formulae for estimating the plants’ luminous output by performing light measurements. Results show that transgenic plants in medium growth can emit a median luminous flux of up to 57 lm, a value that can definitely support low lighting requirements when used in large numbers of plants. From the lighting measurements and calculations performed in this research, the light output of the TBPs for a typical road with 5m width was found equal to 2lx. The amount of plants required was 40 at each side of the road for every 30m of streets with P6 road class. The results show that the use of bioluminescent plants can actually contribute to the reduction of energy consumption, concerning only the lighting criterium, thus creating an enormous opportunity for a new state-of- the-art market and research that could potentially minimize CO2 emissions and light pollution, improve urban and suburban microclimate, mitigate the effects of climate change, as well as provide an alternative means of lighting affecting both outdoor lighting design and landscape planning in suburban and urban settings. Moreover, further research should be applied considering also other possible ecological impacts before applying TBPs for exterior lighting applications.  
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  ISSN 0959-6526 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2711  
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Author Shimomura, M.; Yoshida, H.; Fujiuchi, N.; Ariizumi, T.; Ezura, H.; Fukuda, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Continuous blue lighting and elevated carbon dioxide concentration rapidly increase chlorogenic acid content in young lettuce plants Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Scientia Horticulturae Abbreviated Journal Scientia Horticulturae  
  Volume (up) 272 Issue Pages 109550  
  Keywords Plants  
  Abstract Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a strong antioxidant that potentially reduces oxidative damage in human cells. In this study, the effects of environmental factors such as photoperiod, light quality and intensity, and CO2 concentration on the growth and CGA content of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were evaluated. CGA content in fresh lettuce increased under high light intensity treatments, doubling in concentration under 200 μmol m−2 s-1 compared to 100 μmol m−2 s-1. Elevated CO2 concentration also increased CGA content in fresh lettuce, quadrupling in concentration when grown at 1000 ppm compared to 400 ppm. Furthermore, there was a compound effect of light intensity and CO2 concentration whereby a light intensity level of 200 μmol m−2 s-1 and CO2 of 1000 ppm produced an even higher concentration of CGA, 199 mg per 100 g of fresh lettuce. Increased CGA concentration because of continuous lighting and elevated CO2 was observed under both fluorescent light and blue LED, but not under red LED treatment. Increased day length also induced higher CGA content in lettuce plants. These results show that continuous lighting, including blue spectrum and elevated CO2 concentration can cause higher CGA accumulation in lettuce plants. The observed increase in CGA content was induced only for 2 days after treatment was initiated. One possible interpretation of the data is that physiological stress caused by excess photosynthesis under continuous lighting results in higher CGA content to protect the plant body from high levels of reactive oxidative species. In addition, blue light and CO2 could be stimulus signals for inducing high CGA accumulation via metabolite changes.  
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  ISSN 0304-4238 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3090  
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Author ffrench-Constant, R.; Somers-Yeates, R.; Bennie, J.; Economou, T.; Hodgson, D.; Spalding, A.; McGregor, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light pollution is associated with earlier tree budburst across the United Kingdom Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc Roy Soc B Biol Sci  
  Volume (up) 283 Issue 1833 Pages 1-9  
  Keywords Plants; light pollution, phenology, species interactions, tree budburst, temperature, urban heat islands; United Kingdom  
  Abstract The ecological impact of night-time lighting is of concern because of its well-demonstrated effects on animal behaviour. However, the potential of light pollution to change plant phenology and its corresponding knock-on effects on associated herbivores are less clear. Here, we test if artificial lighting can advance the timing of budburst in trees. We took a UK-wide 13 year dataset of spatially referenced budburst data from four deciduous tree species and matched it with both satellite imagery of night-time lighting and average spring temperature. We find that budburst occurs up to 7.5 days earlier in brighter areas, with the relationship being more pronounced for later-budding species. Excluding large urban areas from the analysis showed an even more pronounced advance of budburst, confirming that the urban ‘heat-island’ effect is not the sole cause of earlier urban budburst. Similarly, the advance in budburst across all sites is too large to be explained by increases in temperature alone. This dramatic advance of budburst illustrates the need for further experimental investigation into the impact of artificial night-time lighting on plant phenology and subsequent species interactions. As light pollution is a growing global phenomenon, the findings of this study are likely to be applicable to a wide range of species interactions across the world.  
  Address Centre for Ecology and Conservation, and 2 Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn TR10 9EZ, UK; rf222(at)exeter.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1472  
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Author Knop, E.; Zoller, L.; Ryser, R.; Gerpe, C.; Hörler, M.; Fontaine, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light at night as a new threat to pollination Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (up) 548 Issue 7666 Pages 206-209  
  Keywords Plants; Animals  
  Abstract Pollinators are declining worldwide and this has raised concerns for a parallel decline in the essential pollination service they provide to both crops and wild plants. Anthropogenic drivers linked to this decline include habitat changes, intensive agriculture, pesticides, invasive alien species, spread of pathogens and climate change1. Recently, the rapid global increase in artificial light at night has been proposed to be a new threat to terrestrial ecosystems; the consequences of this increase for ecosystem function are mostly unknown. Here we show that artificial light at night disrupts nocturnal pollination networks and has negative consequences for plant reproductive success. In artificially illuminated plant–pollinator communities, nocturnal visits to plants were reduced by 62% compared to dark areas. Notably, this resulted in an overall 13% reduction in fruit set of a focal plant even though the plant also received numerous visits by diurnal pollinators. Furthermore, by merging diurnal and nocturnal pollination sub-networks, we show that the structure of these combined networks tends to facilitate the spread of the negative consequences of disrupted nocturnal pollination to daytime pollinator communities. Our findings demonstrate that artificial light at night is a threat to pollination and that the negative effects of artificial light at night on nocturnal pollination are predicted to propagate to the diurnal community, thereby aggravating the decline of the diurnal community. We provide perspectives on the functioning of plant–pollinator communities, showing that nocturnal pollinators are not redundant to diurnal communities and increasing our understanding of the human-induced decline in pollinators and their ecosystem service.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1696  
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