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Author Singhal, R. K., Kumar, M., & Bose, B.
Title Ecophysiological Responses of Artificial Night Light Pollution in Plants Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2018 Publication Russian Journal of Plant Physiology Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Plants
Abstract Early in the 20th century, disparate human developmental processes culminate excess artificial light during night time and distort the phenological, physiological and ecological responses, which are sustained in the plants, animals and microorganism from millions of years. Earlier studies regarding artificial light (AL) during the night predominantly covered the drastic effects on animal systems. Although, drastic effects of AL during night time are enormous; therefore, the present topic is focused on the physiological and ecological consequences of artificial night light pollution (ANLP) on plant systems. In these consequences, most of the plant processes under ANLP are affected intensely and cause compelling changes in plant life cycle from germination to maturity. However, severe effects were observed in the case of pollination, photoreceptor signalling, flowering and microhabitats of plants. Along with drastic effects on ecology and environments, its relevance to human developmental processes cannot be avoided. Therefore, we need to equipoise between sustainable environment and steadily human development processes. Further, selection of plant/crop species, which are more responsive to ANLP, can minimize the ecological consequences of night light pollution. Likewise, changing artificial nightscape with the implication of new LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) lightening policies like UJALA (www.ujala.gov.in), which are low cost, more durable, eco-friendly and less emitter of CO2, have potential to overcome the biodiversity threats, which arise due to old artificial lightening technology from decades. Hence, adopting new advance artificial lightening technology and understanding its impact on plant ecosystem will be a future challenge for plant biologist.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2352
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Author Ehlert, K.; Piepenbring, M.; Kollar, A.
Title Ascospore release in apple scab underlies infrared sensation Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2017 Publication Fungal Biology Abbreviated Journal Fungal Biol
Volume 121 Issue 12 Pages 1054-1062
Keywords Plants
Abstract The agent of apple scab disease (Venturia inaequalis) is the most common pathogen in apple cultivation. Its ascospores are released in spring, mainly during daylight hours and triggered by rain events. To investigate the causes of diurnal rhythm of ascospore dissemination of the apple scab fungus ascospore releases were examined continuously with spore traps in the orchard and with laboratory assays. One of the spore traps was illuminated at night with different light sources in each year during 2011-2015. The laboratory assays were performed with different light sources with varying wavelengths and intensities. In field and laboratory conditions only light including infrared radiation stimulated ascospore release, but not with light in the visible spectrum only. Artificial illumination during night was correlated with an increase of up to 46 % of ascospores released overnight in the field. We proved that infrared radiation induces V. inaequalis to release its spores. This is the first report in which spore discharge could be stimulated during night under field conditions.
Address Julius Kuehn-Institut, Federal Research Center for Cultivated Plants, Institute for Plant Protection in Fruit Crops and Viticulture, Schwabenheimer Strasse 101, 69221 Dossenheim, Germany
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ISSN 1878-6146 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:29122177 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2454
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Author Joo, Y.; Fragoso, V.; Yon, F.; Baldwin, I.T.; Kim, S.-G.
Title The circadian clock component, LHY, tells a plant when to respond photosynthetically to light in nature Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2017 Publication Journal of Integrative Plant Biology Abbreviated Journal J Integr Plant Biol
Volume 59 Issue 8 Pages 572-587
Keywords plants
Abstract The circadian clock is known to increase plant growth and fitness, and thought to prepare plants for photosynthesis at dawn and dusk; whether this happens in nature was unknown. We transformed the native tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata to silence two core clock components, NaLHY (irLHY) and NaTOC1 (irTOC1). We characterized growth and light-and dark-adapted photosynthetic rates (Ac ) throughout a 24 h day in empty vector-transformed (EV), irLHY, and irTOC1 plants in the field, and in NaPhyA-and NaPhyB1-silenced plants in the glasshouse. The growth rates of irLHY plants were lower than those of EV plants in the field. While irLHY plants reduced Ac earlier at dusk, no differences between irLHY and EV plants were observed at dawn in the field. irLHY, but not EV plants, responded to light in the night by rapidly increasing Ac . Under controlled conditions, EV plants rapidly increased Ac in the day compared to dark-adapted plants at night; irLHY plants lost these time-dependent responses. The role of NaLHY in gating photosynthesis is independent of the light-dependent reactions and red light perceived by NaPhyA, but not NaPhyB1. In summary, the circadian clock allows plants not to respond photosynthetically to light at night by anticipating and gating red light-mediated in native tobacco.
Address Department of Molecular Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Hans-Knoll-Str. 8, D-07745, Jena, Germany
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ISSN 1672-9072 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:28429400 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1657
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Author Kwak, M.J.; Lee, S.H.; Khaine, I.; Je, S.M.; Lee, T.Y.; You, H.N.; Lee, H.K.; Jang, J.H.; Kim, I.; Woo, S.Y.
Title Stomatal movements depend on interactions between external night light cue and internal signals activated by rhythmic starch turnover and abscisic acid (ABA) levels at dawn and dusk Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2017 Publication Acta Physiologiae Plantarum Abbreviated Journal Acta Physiol Plant
Volume 39 Issue 8 Pages
Keywords Plants
Abstract Yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) is a widespread hardwood tree of great ecological and economic value. Light pollution caused by excessive and indiscriminate exposure to artificial night light has emerged as a new risk factor due to its adverse effects related to energy waste, sleep disorders, anthropogenic habitat disturbance, and perceptual disorder of daily and seasonal rhythms in wildlife. However, it remains unknown how associations between artificial night light and stomatal behaviors controlled by internal signals are established. After continuous exposure to artificial light at night over 3 years, leaves in the experimental set-up were measured for stomatal movements, starch turnover, endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) levels, and chloroplast ultrastructure during the growing season. Yellow poplar showed dynamic changes in stomatal movement, starch turnover, and endogenous ABA levels in response to day/artificial night light cycle, resulting in reduction of circadian phase-shifting capacity at both dusk and dawn and normal chloroplast development as compared with natural night. Nighttime light exposure may act as a major factor for disorder of circadian and circannual rhythms as well as physiological and ultrastructural repressor in plants, via a modification of the perceived photoperiod. Our study suggests that these dynamic responses can provide advantageous insights that complement the current knowledge on light pollution.
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ISSN 0137-5881 ISBN Medium
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Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1682
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Author Knop, E.; Zoller, L.; Ryser, R.; Gerpe, C.; Hörler, M.; Fontaine, C.
Title Artificial light at night as a new threat to pollination Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2017 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature
Volume 548 Issue 7666 Pages 206-209
Keywords Plants; Animals
Abstract Pollinators are declining worldwide and this has raised concerns for a parallel decline in the essential pollination service they provide to both crops and wild plants. Anthropogenic drivers linked to this decline include habitat changes, intensive agriculture, pesticides, invasive alien species, spread of pathogens and climate change1. Recently, the rapid global increase in artificial light at night has been proposed to be a new threat to terrestrial ecosystems; the consequences of this increase for ecosystem function are mostly unknown. Here we show that artificial light at night disrupts nocturnal pollination networks and has negative consequences for plant reproductive success. In artificially illuminated plant–pollinator communities, nocturnal visits to plants were reduced by 62% compared to dark areas. Notably, this resulted in an overall 13% reduction in fruit set of a focal plant even though the plant also received numerous visits by diurnal pollinators. Furthermore, by merging diurnal and nocturnal pollination sub-networks, we show that the structure of these combined networks tends to facilitate the spread of the negative consequences of disrupted nocturnal pollination to daytime pollinator communities. Our findings demonstrate that artificial light at night is a threat to pollination and that the negative effects of artificial light at night on nocturnal pollination are predicted to propagate to the diurnal community, thereby aggravating the decline of the diurnal community. We provide perspectives on the functioning of plant–pollinator communities, showing that nocturnal pollinators are not redundant to diurnal communities and increasing our understanding of the human-induced decline in pollinators and their ecosystem service.
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ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1696
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