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Author Sutton, P.C.; Costanza, R.
Title Global estimates of market and non-market values derived from nighttime satellite imagery, land cover, and ecosystem service valuation Type Journal Article
Year 2002 Publication Ecological Economics Abbreviated Journal Ecological Economics
Volume 41 Issue 3 Pages 509-527
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract (down) We estimated global marketed and non-marketed economic value from two classified satellite images with global coverage at 1 km2 resolution. GDP (a measure of marketed economic output) is correlated with the amount of light energy (LE) emitted by that nation as measured by nighttime satellite images. LE emitted is more spatially explicit than whole country GDP, may (for some nations or regions) be a more accurate indicator of economic activity than GDP itself, can be directly observed, and can be easily updated on an annual basis. As far as we know, this is the first global map of estimated economic activity produced at this high spatial resolution (1 km2). Ecosystem services product (ESP) is an important type of non-marketed value. ESP at 1 km2 resolution was estimated using the IGBP land-cover dataset and unit ecosystem service values estimated by Costanza et al. [Valuing Ecosystem Services with Efficiency, Fairness and Sustainability as Goals. Nature's Services, Island Press, Washington DC, pp. 49–70]. The sum of these two (GDP+ESP)=SEP is a measure of the subtotal ecological–economic product (marketed plus a significant portion of the non-marketed). The ratio: (ESP/SEP)×100=%ESP is a measure of proportion of the SEP from ecosystem services. Both SEP and %ESP were calculated and mapped for each 1 km2 pixel on the earth's surface, and aggregated by country. Results show the detailed spatial patterns of GDP, ESP, and SEP (also available at: http://www.du.edu/∼psutton/esiindexisee/EcolEconESI.htm). Globally, while GDP is concentrated in the northern industrialized countries, ESP is concentrated in tropical regions and in wetlands and other coastal systems. %ESP ranges from 1% for Belgium and Luxembourg to 3% for the Netherlands, 18% for India, 22% for the United States, 49% for Costa Rica, 57% for Chile, 73% for Brazil, and 92% for Russia. While GDP per capita has the usual northern industrialized countries at the top of the list, SEP per capita shows a quite different picture, with a mixture of countries with either high GDP/capita, high ESP/capita, or a combination near the top of the list. Finally, we compare our results with two other indices: (1) The 2001 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) derived as an initiative of the Global Leaders of Tomorrow Environment Task Force, World Economic Forum, and (2) Ecological Footprints of Nations: How much Nature do they use? How much Nature do they have? developed by Mathis Wackernagel and others. While both of these indices purport to measure sustainability, the ESI is actually mainly a measure of economic activity (and is correlated with GDP), while the Eco-Footprint index is a measure of environmental impact. The related eco-deficit (national ecological capacity minus national footprint) correlates well with %ESP.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0921-8009 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2477
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Author Birriel, J.; Adkins, J. K.
Title A Simple, Portable Apparatus to Measure Night Sky Brightness at Various Zenith Angles Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication The Journal of the American Association of Variable Star Observers Abbreviated Journal
Volume 38 Issue Pages 221
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract (down) We describe a simple apparatus for making measurements of night sky brightness as a function of zenith and azimuth using “off-the-shelf” equipment: a Unihedron Sky Quality Meter with Lens, a protractor with plumb-line, a tripod, and a hand-held compass. Compared to a photoelectric or CCD photometric system, this apparatus is simple to set up and use and does not require complex data reduction procedures. Thus, this apparatus makes measurements of night sky brightness as a function of zenith and azimuthal angles quite amenable to students.
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @; IDA @ john @ Serial 905
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Author Campaign to Protect Rural England
Title Night Blight: Mapping England’s light pollution and dark skies Type Report
Year 2016 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Skyglow; Remote Sensing; Artificial light at night; United Kingdom; Great Britain
Abstract (down) We can now present the most accurate ever picture of how much light is spilling up into Britain’s night skies. Detailed interactive maps have been created for England

showing districts, counties, National Parks and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONBs) and, at a wider scale, National Character Areas. Besides these, there are high-level maps available for Scotland and Wales, so that we can now

present the most accurate ever picture of how much light is spilling up into Britain’s night sky.
Address Campaign to Protect Rural England, 5-11 Lavington Street, London SE1 0NZ, United Kingdom; info(at)cpre.org.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Campaign to Protect Rural England Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1468
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Author Paulino, C.; Aroni, E.; Xu, H.; Alburqueque, E.; Demarcq, H.
Title Use of nighttime visible images in the study of the spatial and temporal variability of fishing areas of jumbo flying squid ( Dosidicus gigas ) outside Peruvian EEZ 2004-2015 Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Fisheries Research Abbreviated Journal Fisheries Research
Volume 191 Issue Pages 144-153
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract (down) We analyzed the temporal variability of the fishing fleet of Dosidicus gigas, located outside the exclusive economic zone of Peru (EEZ), with a spatial luminosity index. The nighttime satellite images were provided by the Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) from 2004 to 2015. 2995 images were processed, selecting pixels in the range of 30–63 Digital Number (DN), to identify the presence of vessels in the image.

The time series showed an extensive latitudinal distribution of the fishing fleet from 6°S to 32°S, with years of low (2005–2009) and high (2004, 2010–2015) presence, describing a recurrent seasonal pattern of latitudinal displacement measured from its center of gravity (CG). The CG reaches its southernmost position between February to April and its northernmost position between August to October. Some vessels were also detected within the Peruvian EEZ.

The latitudinal inertia presented values of 0.3–1 indicating high fleet concentration between 12°S to 17°S and the longitudinal inertia presented values >2, showing the wide distribution of the resource. Luminous pixels showed high fishing occurrence (>18 times) on a single pixel, in front of Chimbote around 9°51′S–82°31′W from 2004 to 2011. From 2012 to 2015 areas of high fishing occurrence increased in front of Huarmey (10°36′S/82°41′W) and San Juan de Marcona (15°53′S/80°6′W).

For both periods, high intensity pixels (DN >60) show extensive areas of fishing operation between 9°S to 20°S along 200 nautical miles from the coast, while values between 30 and 45 DN could be mostly associated with the search for fishing zones. Since 2012, pixels with DN >58 have increased, indicating a greater fishing activity likely related to a higher availability of the resource or a better knowledge of the fishing zones, associated with an increase of the fishing effort and a possible higher pressure on the resource.
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ISSN 0165-7836 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1646
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Author Fabian, M.; Lessmann, C.; Sofke, T.
Title Natural disasters and regional development – the case of earthquakes Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Environment and Development Economics Abbreviated Journal Envir. Dev. Econ.
Volume 24 Issue 5 Pages 479-505
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract (down) We analyze the impact of earthquakes on nighttime lights at a sub-national level, i.e., on grids of different size. We argue that existing studies on the impact of natural disasters on economic development have several important limitations, both at the level of the outcome variable as well as at the level of the independent variable, e.g., the timing of an event and the measuring of its intensity. We aim to overcome these limitations by using geophysical event data on earthquakes together with satellite nighttime lights. Using panel fixed effects regressions covering the entire world for the period 1992–2013, we find that earthquakes reduce both light growth rates and light levels significantly. The effects persist for approximately 5 years, but we find no long-run effects. Effects are stronger the smaller the area of a unit of observation. National institutions and economic conditions are relevant moderating factors.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1355-770X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3000
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