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Author Ma, T.; Zhou, C.; Pei, T.; Haynie, S.; Fan, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Quantitative estimation of urbanization dynamics using time series of DMSP/OLS nighttime light data: A comparative case study from China's cities Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment  
  Volume 124 Issue Pages 99-107  
  Keywords Urbanization; DMSP-OLS; Nighttime light; Statistical analysis; China; remote sensing; satellite; light at night  
  Abstract Urbanization process involving increased population size, spatially extended land cover and intensified economic activity plays a substantial role in anthropogenic environment changes. Remotely sensed nighttime lights datasets derived from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) provide a consistent measure for characterizing trends in urban sprawl over time (Sutton, 2003). The utility of DMSP/OLS imagery for monitoring dynamics in human settlement and economic activity at regional to global scales has been widely verified in previous studies through statistical correlations between nighttime light brightness and demographic and economic variables ( and ). The quantitative relationship between long-term nighttime light signals and urbanization variables, required for extensive application of DMSP/OLS data for estimating and projecting the trajectory of urban development, however, are not well addressed for individual cities at a local scale. We here present analysis results concerning quantitative responses of stable nighttime lights derived from time series of DMSP/OLS imagery to changes in urbanization variables during 1994–2009 for more than 200 prefectural-level cities and municipalities in China. To identify the best-fitting model for nighttime lights-based measurement of urbanization processes with different development patterns, we comparatively use three regression models: linear, power-law and exponential functions to quantify the long-term relationships between nighttime weighted light area and four urbanization variables: population, gross domestic product (GDP), built-up area and electric power consumption. Our results suggest that nighttime light brightness could be an explanatory indicator for estimating urbanization dynamics at the city level. Various quantitative relationships between urban nighttime lights and urbanization variables may indicate diverse responses of DMSP/OLS nighttime light signals to anthropogenic dynamics in urbanization process in terms of demographic and economic variables. At the city level, growth in weighted lit area may take either a linear, concave (exponential) or convex (power law) form responsive to expanding human population and economic activities during urbanization. Therefore, in practice, quantitative models for using DMSP/OLS data to estimate urbanization dynamics should vary with different patterns of urban development, particularly for cities experiencing rapid urban growth at a local scale.  
  Address (up)  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 219  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Small, C.; Elvidge, C.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night on Earth: Mapping decadal changes of anthropogenic night light in Asia Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation  
  Volume 22 Issue Pages 40-52  
  Keywords Urban; Night light; DMSP-OLS; Landsat; Zipf; Asia; India; China; Nightsat; remote sensing; light at night; satellite  
  Abstract The defense meteorological satellite program (DMSP) operational linescan system (OLS) sensors have imaged emitted light from Earth's surface since the 1970s. Temporal overlap in the missions of 5 OLS sensors allows for intercalibration of the annual composites over the past 19 years (Elvidge et al., 2009). The resulting image time series captures a spatiotemporal signature of the growth and evolution of lighted human settlements and development. We use empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and the temporal feature space to characterize and quantify patterns of temporal change in stable night light brightness and spatial extent since 1992. Temporal EOF analysis provides a statistical basis for representing spatially abundant temporal patterns in the image time series as uncorrelated vectors of brightness as a function of time from 1992 to 2009. The variance partition of the eigenvalue spectrum combined with temporal structure of the EOFs and spatial structure of the PCs provides a basis for distinguishing between deterministic multi-year trends and stochastic year-to-year variance. The low order EOFs and principal components (PC) space together discriminate both earlier (1990s) and later (2000s) increases and decreases in brightness. Inverse transformation of these low order dimensions reduces stochastic variance sufficiently so that tri-temporal composites depict potentially deterministic decadal trends. The most pronounced changes occur in Asia. At critical brightness threshold we find an 18% increase in the number of spatially distinct lights and an 80% increase in lighted area in southern and eastern Asia between 1992 and 2009. During this time both China and India experienced a &#8764;20% increase in number of lights and a &#8764;270% increase in lighted area – although the timing of the increase is later in China than in India. Throughout Asia a variety of different patterns of brightness increase are apparent in tri-temporal brightness composites – as well as some conspicuous areas of apparently decreasing background luminance and, in many places, intermittent light suggesting development of infrastructure rather than persistently lighted development. Vicarious validation using higher resolution Landsat imagery verifies multiple phases of urban growth in several cities as well as the consistent presence of low DN (<&#8764;15) background luminance for many agricultural areas. Lights also allow us to quantify changes in the size distribution and connectedness of different intensities of development. Over a wide range of brightnesses, the size distributions of spatially contiguous lighted area are consistent with power laws with exponents near &#8722;1 as predicted by Zipf's Law for cities. However, the larger lighted segments are much larger than individual cities; they correspond to vast spatial networks of contiguous development (Small et al., 2011).  
  Address (up)  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0303-2434 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 222  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Zhao, N.; Samson, E.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Estimation of virtual water contained in international trade products using nighttime imagery Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation  
  Volume 18 Issue Pages 243-250  
  Keywords Virtual water; Nighttime imagery; Lit area; Urban population; International trade product; DMSP-OLS; remote sensing; satellite; light at night  
  Abstract Freshwater that is consumed in the process of producing a commodity is called virtual water – it represents all water use contained in that commodity. In social systems, water resources can flow when commodities are traded from one region to another. Quantitative monitoring and assessing virtual water flow related to international trade products is an important issue to comprehensively understand the balance of global water resources. In this study we tested the potential of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) nighttime images in conjunction with the LandScan population dataset for estimation of virtual water contained in international trade products. Lit area (areal extent of night lights) and urban population were selected as proxies to estimate export virtual water (EVW), import virtual water (IVW), and traded virtual water (TVW) (summed EVW and IVW), respectively, on the national level. The results showed that IVW can be more accurately estimated than EVW regardless of lit area or urban population. Lit area is normally more appropriate for estimation of the virtual water of developed countries than those of developing countries, but urban population is more appropriate for estimation of the virtual water of developing countries than those of developed countries. Urban population is a better proxy than total population for estimations of virtual water. This study makes a negative finding in that there are relatively large underestimations for developed countries. Another negative finding is that neither lit area nor urban population can be used to estimate net import virtual water (NIVW).  
  Address (up)  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0303-2434 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 224  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Nordhaus, W.; Chen, X. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A sharper image? Estimates of the precision of nighttime lights as a proxy for economic statistics Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Economic Geography Abbreviated Journal J of Econ Geog  
  Volume 15 Issue 1 Pages 217-246  
  Keywords Nighttime lights; luminosity; output measurement; national accounts; proxy measures; social science; economics; remote sensing  
  Abstract Much aggregate social-science analysis relies upon the standard national income and product accounts as a source of economic data. These are recognized to be defective in many poor countries, and are missing at the regional level for large parts of the world. Using updated luminosity (or nighttime lights) data, the present study examines whether such data contain useful information for estimating national and regional incomes and output. The bootstrap method is used for estimating the statistical precision of the estimates of the contribution of the lights proxy. We conclude that there may be substantial cross-sectional information in lights data for countries with low-quality statistical systems. However, lights data provide very little additional information for countries with high-quality data wherever standard data are available. The largest statistical concerns arise from uncertainties about the precision of standard national accounts data.  
  Address (up)  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Oxford University Press Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 363  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Small, C.; Elvidge, C.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mapping Decadal Change in Anthropogenic Night Light Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Procedia Environmental Sciences Abbreviated Journal Procedia Environmental Sciences  
  Volume 7 Issue Pages 353-358  
  Keywords night light; urban; development; EOF analysis; PCA; Zipf; spatial network; fractal; percolation; DMSP-OLS; remote sensing; satellite; light at night  
  Abstract The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) sensors have imaged emitted light from Earth's surface since the 1970's. Temporal overlap in the missions of 5 OLS sensors allows for intercalibration of the annual composites over the past 19 years [1]. The resulting image time series captures a spatiotemporal signature of human settlement growth and evolution. We use temporal Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis to characterize and quantify patterns of temporal change in stable night light brightness and spatial extent since 1992. Temporal EOF analysis provides a statistical basis for representing spatially abundant temporal patterns in the image time series as uncorrelated vectors of brightness as a function of time from 1992 to 2009. The variance partition of the eigenvalue spectrum combined with temporal structure of the EOFs provides a basis for distinguishing between deterministic temporal trends and stochastic year to year variance. The low order EOFs and Principal Components (PC) space together discriminate both earlier (1990s) and later (2000s) increases and decreases in brightness. Inverse transformation of these low order dimensions reduces stochastic variance sufficiently so that tri-temporal composites depict deterministic decadal trends. The most pronounced changes occur in Asia. Throughout Asia a variety of different patterns of brightness increase are visible in tri-temporal brightness composites – as well as some conspicuous areas of apparently decreasing background luminance and, in many places, intermittent light suggesting development of infrastructure rather than persistently lighted development. Vicarious validation using higher resolution imagery reveals multiple phases of urban growth in several cities, numerous instances of highway construction, extensive terracing networks and hydroelectric dam construction [3]. Lights also allow us to quantify the size distribution and connectedness of different intensities of development. Over a wide range of brightnesses, size distributions of spatially contiguous lighted area are well-fit by power laws with exponents near -1 as predicted by Zipf's Law. However, the larger lighted segments are much larger than individual cities; they correspond to vast spatial networks of contiguous development.  
  Address (up)  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1878-0296 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 227  
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