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Author Gibson J.; Olivia S.; Boe‐Gibson G.
Title Night Lights In Economics: Sources And Uses Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Economic Surveys Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages in press
Keywords Remote Sensing; Economics; Review
Abstract Night lights, as detected by satellites, are increasingly used by economists, typically as a proxy for economic activity. The growing popularity of these data reflects either the absence, or the presumed inaccuracy, of more conventional economic statistics, like national or regional GDP. Further growth in use of night lights is likely, as they have been included in the AidData geoquery tool for providing subnational data, and in geographic data that the Demographic and Health Survey links to anonymized survey enumeration areas. Yet, this ease of obtaining night lights data may lead to inappropriate use, if users fail to recognize that most of the satellites providing these data were not designed to assist economists, and have features that may threaten validity of analyses based on these data, especially for temporal comparisons, and for small and rural areas. In this paper, we review sources of satellite data on night lights, discuss issues with these data, and survey some of their uses in economics.
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Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial (down) 3177
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Author Elvidge, C.D.; Hsu, F.-C.; Zhizhin, M.; Ghosh, T.; Taneja, J.; Bazilian, M.
Title Indicators of Electric Power Instability from Satellite Observed Nighttime Lights Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 12 Issue 19 Pages 3194
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Electric power services are fundamental to prosperity and economic development. Disruptions in the electricity power service can range from minutes to days. Such events are common in many developing economies, where the power generation and delivery infrastructure is often insufficient to meet demand and operational challenges. Yet, despite the large impacts, poor data availability has meant that relatively little is known about the spatial and temporal patterns of electric power reliability. Here, we explore the expressions of electric power instability recorded in temporal profiles of satellite observed surface lighting collected by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) low light imaging day/night band (DNB). The nightly temporal profiles span from 2012 through to mid-2020 and contain more than 3000 observations, each from a total of 16 test sites from Africa, Asia, and North America. We present our findings in terms of various novel indicators. The preprocessing steps included radiometric adjustments designed to reduce variance due to the view angle and lunar illumination differences. The residual variance after the radiometric adjustments suggests the presence of a previously unidentified source of variability in the DNB observations of surface lighting. We believe that the short dwell time of the DNB pixel collections results in the vast under-sampling of the alternating current lighting flicker cycles. We tested 12 separate indices and looked for evidence of power instability. The key characteristic of lights in cities with developing electric power services is that they are quite dim, typically 5 to 10 times dimmer for the same population level as in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. In fact, the radiances for developing cities are just slightly above the detection limit, in the range of 1 to 10 nanowatts. The clearest indicator for power loss is the percent outage. Indicators for supply adequacy include the radiance per person and the percent of population with detectable lights. The best indicator for load-shedding is annual cycling, which was found in more than half of the grid cells in two Northern India cities. Cities with frequent upward or downward radiance spikes can have anomalously high levels of variance, skew, and kurtosis. A final observation is that, barring war or catastrophic events, the year-on-year changes in lighting are quite small. Most cities are either largely stable over time, or are gradually increasing in indices such as the mean, variance, and lift, indicating a trajectory that proceeds across multiple years.
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ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3175
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Author Xie, Z.; Han, Y.; Sun, L.; Ping, J.
Title Analysis of land cover evolution within the built-up areas of provincial capital cities in northeastern China based on nighttime light data and Landsat data Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 15 Issue 10 Pages e0239371
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Mastering the evolution of urban land cover is important for urban management and planning. In this paper, a method for analyzing land cover evolution within urban built-up areas based on nighttime light data and Landsat data is proposed. The method solves the problem of inaccurate descriptions of urban built-up area boundaries from the use of single-source diurnal or nocturnal remote sensing data and was able to achieve an effective analysis of land cover evolution within built-up areas. Four main procedures are involved: (1) The neighborhood extremum method and maximum likelihood method are used to extract nighttime light data and the urban built-up area boundaries from the Landsat data, respectively; (2) multisource urban boundaries are obtained using boundary pixel fusion of the nighttime light data and Landsat urban built-up area boundaries; (3) the maximum likelihood method is used to classify Landsat data within multisource urban boundaries into land cover classes, such as impervious surface, vegetation and water, and to calculate landscape indexes, such as overall landscape trends, degree of fragmentation and degree of aggregation; (4) the changes in the multisource urban boundaries and landscape indexes were obtained using the abovementioned methods, which were supported by multitemporal nighttime light data and Landsat data, to model the urban land cover evolution. Using the cities of Shenyang, Changchun and Harbin in northeastern China as experimental areas, the multitemporal landscape index showed that the integration and aggregation of land cover in the urban areas had an increasing trend, the natural environment of Shenyang and Harbin was improving, while Changchun laid more emphasis on the construction of artificial facilities. At the same time, the method proposed in this paper to extract built-up areas from multi-source city data showed that the user accuracy, production accuracy, overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient are at least 3%, 1%, 1% and 0.04 higher than the single-source data method.
Address School of Transportation Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Hunnan District, Shenyang, China
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ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:33001996; PMCID:PMC7529268 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3166
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Author Alam M.; Dappe M. H.; Melecky M.; Goldblatt R.
Title Wider Economic Benefits of Transport Corridors: Evidence from International Development Organizations Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Policy Research Working Paper Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue 9057 Pages
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract This paper collects meta data on transport corridor projects financed by the Asian Development Bank, Japan International Cooperation Agency, and World Bank and links them to one important wider economic benefit -- local economic activity. The meta data cover 47 projects in 16 countries, with appraisal dates between 1991 and 2007. First, the paper reviews the variation in project design and implementation -- including the local initial conditions, complementary non-transport interventions, and private sector involvement. Second, using the difference-in-differences methodology, the paper links this variation to a measure of local economic activity -- the geocoded intensity of nighttime lights. The effect of the supported corridor projects on local economic activity could be very heterogenous and significantly depend on certain initial conditions and project characteristics. The latter could include locations with access to the sea, as well as projects with a strong theory of change and better engagement of the private sector.
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Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial (down) 3163
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Author Gibson J.; Olivia S.; Boe-Gibson G.
Title A Test of DMPS and VIIRS Night Lights Data for Estimating GDP and Spatial Inequality for Rural and Urban Areas Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Working Paper in Economics Abbreviated Journal
Volume 19 Issue 11 Pages
Keywords Remote sensing; Economics
Abstract Night lights, as detected by satellites, are increasingly used by economists, especially to proxy for economic activity in poor countries. Widely used data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) have several flaws; blurring, top-coding, lack of calibration, and variation in sensor amplification that impairs comparability over time and space. These flaws are not present in newer data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) that is widely used in other disciplines. Economists have been slow to switch to these better VIIRS data, perhaps because flaws in DMSP are rarely emphasized. We show the relationship between night lights and Indonesian GDP at the second sub-national level for 497 spatial units. The DMSP data are not a suitable proxy for GDP outside of cities. Within the urban sector, the lights-GDP relationship is twice as noisy using DMSP as using VIIRS. Spatial inequality is considerably understated by the DMSP data. A Pareto adjustment to correct for top-coding in DMSP data has a modest effect but still understates spatial inequality and misses much of the intra-city heterogeneity in the brightness of lights for Jakarta.
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Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial (down) 3159
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