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Author Tabaka, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Pilot Measurement of Illuminance in the Context of Light Pollution Performed with an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 12 Issue 13 Pages 2124  
  Keywords Instrumentation; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract This article presents the methodology and results of pilot field illuminance measurements using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The main goal of the study was to quantify the luminous flux emitted in the upper hemisphere (toward the sky) based on obtained measurement data. The luminous flux emitted toward the sky is the source of undesirable light pollution. For test purposes, a height-adjustable mobile park lantern was constructed, at the top of which any type of luminaire can be installed. In the pilot measurements, two real opal sphere-type luminaires were considered. The lantern was situated in an open area located away from a large city agglomeration. To determine the unusable luminous flux, illuminance was measured, placing the necessary measuring equipment on board a UAV. The measurements were supplemented with the registration of illuminance on the ground upon which the lantern was installed. Based on these data, the useful luminous flux was calculated. The findings show that UAVs may be successfully used for the assessment of the influence of lighting on the light pollution effect.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3040  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Jia, T.; Chen, K.; Li, X. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Exploring the Factors Controlling Nighttime Lights from Prefecture Cities in Mainland China with the Hierarchical Linear Model Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 12 Issue 13 Pages 2119  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Nighttime light data have been proven to be valuable for socioeconomic studies. However, they are not only affected by anthropogenic factors but also by physical factors, and previous studies have rarely examined these diverse variables in a systematic way that explains differences in nighttime lights across different cities. In this paper, hierarchical linear models at two levels of city and province were developed to investigate the nighttime lights effect on cross-level factors. An experiment was conducted for 281 prefecture cities in Mainland China using orbital satellite data in 2016. (1) There exist significant differences among city average lights, of which 49.9% is caused at the provincial level, indicating the factors at the provincial level cannot be ignored. (2) Economy-energy-infrastructure and demography factors have a significant positive lights effect. Meanwhile, industry-information and living-standard factors at the provincial level can further significantly increase these differences by 18.30% and 29.01%, respectively. (3) The natural-greenness factor displayed a significant negative lights effect, and its interaction with natural-ecology will continue to decrease city lights by 11.99%. However, artificial-greenness is an unreliable city-level factor explaining lights variations. (4) As for the negative lights effect of elevation and latitude, these become significant in a multivariate context and contribute lights indirectly. (5) The two-level hierarchical linear models are statistically significant at the level of 10%, and compared with the null model, the explained variances on city lights can be improved by 70% at the city level and 90% at the provincial level in the final mixed effect model.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3037  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Gao, S.; Chen, Y.; Liang, L.; Gong, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Post-Earthquake Night-Time Light Piecewise (PNLP) Pattern Based on NPP/VIIRS Night-Time Light Data: A Case Study of the 2015 Nepal Earthquake Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 12 Issue 12 Pages 2009  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Earthquakes are unpredictable and potentially destructive natural disasters that take a long time to recover from. Monitoring post-earthquake human activity (HA) is of great significance to recovery and reconstruction work. There is a strong correlation between night-time light (NTL) and HA, which aid in the study of spatiotemporal changes in post-earthquake human activities. However, seasonal and noise impact from National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Satellite Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (NPP/VIIRS) data greatly limits their application. To tackle these issues, random noise and seasonal fluctuation of NPP/VIIRS from January 2014 to December 2018 is removed by adopting the seasonal-trend decomposition procedure based on loess (STL). Based on the theory of post-earthquake recovery model, a post-earthquake night-time light piecewise (PNLP) pattern is explored by employing the National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Satellite Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (NPP/VIIRS) monthly data. PNLP indicators, including pre-earthquake development rate (kp), recovery rate (kr1), reconstruction rate (kr2), development rate (kd), relative reconstruction rate (krp) and loss (S), are defined to describe the PNLP pattern. Furthermore, the 2015 Nepal earthquake is chosen as a case study and the spatiotemporal changes in different areas are analyzed. The results reveal that: (1) STL is an effective algorithm for obtaining HA trend from the time series of denoising NTL; (2) the PNLP pattern, divided into four phases, namely the emergency phase (EP), recovery phase (RP-1), reconstruction phase (RP-2), and development phase (DP), aptly describes the variation in post-earthquake HA; (3) PNLP indicators are capable of evaluating the recovery differences across regions. The main socio-economic factors affecting the PNLP pattern and PNLP indicators are energy source for lighting, type of building, agricultural economy, and human poverty index. Based on the NPP/VIIRS data, the PNLP pattern can reflect the periodical changes of HA after earthquakes and provide an effective means for the analysis and evaluation of post-earthquake recovery and reconstruction.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3038  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Ren, Z.; Liu, Y.; Chen, B.; Xu, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Where Does Nighttime Light Come From? Insights from Source Detection and Error Attribution Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 12 Issue 12 Pages 1922  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Nighttime light remote sensing has aroused great popularity because of its advantage in estimating socioeconomic indicators and quantifying human activities in response to the changing world. Despite many advances that have been made in method development and implementation of nighttime light remote sensing over the past decades, limited studies have dived into answering the question: Where does nighttime light come from? This hinders our capability of identifying specific sources of nighttime light in urbanized regions. Addressing this shortcoming, here we proposed a parcel-oriented temporal linear unmixing method (POTLUM) to identify specific nighttime light sources with the integration of land use data. Ratio of root mean square error was used as the measure to assess the unmixing accuracy, and parcel purity index and source sufficiency index were proposed to attribute unmixing errors. Using the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) nighttime light dataset from the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite and the newly released Essential Urban Land Use Categories in China (EULUC-China) product, we applied the proposed method and conducted experiments in two China cities with different sizes, Shanghai and Quzhou. Results of the POTLUM showed its relatively robust applicability of detecting specific nighttime light sources, achieving an rRMSE of 3.38% and 1.04% in Shanghai and Quzhou, respectively. The major unmixing errors resulted from using impure land parcels as endmembers (i.e., parcel purity index for Shanghai and Quzhou: 54.48%, 64.09%, respectively), but it also showed that predefined light sources are sufficient (i.e., source sufficiency index for Shanghai and Quzhou: 96.53%, 99.55%, respectively). The method presented in this study makes it possible to identify specific sources of nighttime light and is expected to enrich the estimation of structural socioeconomic indicators, as well as better support various applications in urban planning and management.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3032  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Cox, D.T.C.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Dzurjak, S.A.; Bennie, J.; Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title National Scale Spatial Variation in Artificial Light at Night Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 12 Issue 10 Pages 1591  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; United Kingdom; National parks; skyglow; VIIRS-DNB; albedo; landcover; light emissions; light pollution; protected areas; skyglow; sky brightness; urbanization  
  Abstract The disruption to natural light regimes caused by outdoor artificial nighttime lighting has significant impacts on human health and the natural world. Artificial light at night takes two forms, light emissions and skyglow (caused by the scattering of light by water, dust and gas molecules in the atmosphere). Key to determining where the biological impacts from each form are likely to be experienced is understanding their spatial occurrence, and how this varies with other landscape factors. To examine this, we used data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) day/night band and the World Atlas of Artificial Night Sky Brightness, to determine covariation in (a) light emissions, and (b) skyglow, with human population density, landcover, protected areas and roads in Britain. We demonstrate that, although artificial light at night increases with human density, the amount of light per person decreases with increasing urbanization (with per capita median direct emissions three times greater in rural than urban populations, and per capita median skyglow eleven times greater). There was significant variation in artificial light at night within different landcover types, emphasizing that light pollution is not a solely urban issue. Further, half of English National Parks have higher levels of skyglow than light emissions, indicating their failure to buffer biodiversity from pressures that artificial lighting poses. The higher per capita emissions in rural than urban areas provide different challenges and opportunities for mitigating the negative human health and environmental impacts of light pollution.  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9FE, UK; d.t.c.cox(at )exeter.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher MDPI Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2920  
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