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Author Kocifaj, M.; Kundracik, F.
Title Multi-wavelength radiometry of aerosols designed for more accurate night sky brightness predictions Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume (down) 250 Issue Pages 106998
Keywords Skyglow; Remote Sensing
Abstract Scattering by aerosols and gases cause a certain fraction of artificial light emitted upwards is redirected to the ground. Of all atmospheric constituents just the aerosols are most important modulators of night-sky brightness under cloudless conditions. Unlike most of the previous we highlight a crucial role of solar radiometry for determining the atmospheric optical depth before night-time observation is to be made. Aerosol optical depth at visible wavelengths extracted from the data measured provides then the information on size distribution or mean refractive index of aerosol particles that in turn are both necessary to make night sky brightness prediction more accurate. Therefore, combining daytime and night-time radiometry we can achieve accuracy much higher than ever before. This is due to significantly reduced uncertainty in aerosol properties.

The aerosol data are retrieved from a new portable multi-wavelength optical analyzer that operates Ocean Optics spectrometer. The equipment provides the radiance data from 350 nm to 1000 nm with spectral resolution of 1 nm. Due to high sun radiance levels we use a system of mirrors each reducing the signal to about 4%, while keeping the integration time short. The minimum integration time of 3 ms allows for detection of direct sunlight. The system developed is sensitive to small changes in the aerosol system, while showing a good detection limit even under low turbidity conditions. The system performance is demonstrated in field experiment conducted shortly after front passage when most of aerosol particles is effectively removed by rain.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2906
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Author Falchi, F.; Furgoni, R.; Gallaway, T.A.; Rybnikova, N.A.; Portnov, B.A.; Baugh, K.; Cinzano, P.; Elvidge, C.D.
Title Light pollution in USA and Europe: The good, the bad and the ugly Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Journal of Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal Journal of Environmental Management
Volume (down) 248 Issue Pages 109227
Keywords Remote Sensing; gross domestic product; light pollution; Economics
Abstract Light pollution is a worldwide problem that has a range of adverse effects on human health and natural eco-systems. Using data from the New World Atlas of Artificial Night Sky Brightness, VIIRS-recorded radiance and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) data, we compared light pollution levels, and the light flux to the population size and GDP at the State and County levels in the USA and at Regional (NUTS2) and Province (NUTS3) levels inEurope. We found 6800-fold differences between the most and least polluted regions in Europe, 120-fold differences in their light flux per capita, and 267-fold differences influx per GDP unit. Yet, we found even greater differences between US counties: 200,000-fold differences in sky pollution, 16,000-fold differences in light flux per capita, and 40,000-fold differences in light flux per GDP unit. These findings may inform policy-makers, helping to reduce energy waste and adverse environmental, cultural and health consequences associated with light pollution.
Address STIL – Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologia dell'Inquinamento Luminoso, Light Pollution Science and Technology Institute, Thiene, Italy; Italy. falchi@lightpollution.it(at)istil.it
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0301-4797 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2593
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Author Li, X.; Levin, N.; Xie, J.; Li, D.
Title Monitoring hourly night-time light by an unmanned aerial vehicle and its implications to satellite remote sensing Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment
Volume (down) 247 Issue Pages in press
Keywords Remote Sensing; Skyglow; Instrumentation
Abstract Satellite-observed night-time light in urban areas has been widely used as an indicator for socioeconomic development and light pollution. Up to present, the diurnal dynamics of city light during the night, which are important to understand the nature of human activity and the underlying variables explaining night-time brightness, have hardly been investigated by remote sensing techniques due to limitation of the revisit time and spatial resolution of available satellites. In this study, we employed a consumer-grade unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to monitor city light in a study area located in Wuhan City, China, from 8:08 PM, April 15, 2019 to 5:08 AM, April 16, 2019, with an hourly temporal resolution. By using three ground-based Sky Quality Meters (SQMs), we found that the UAV-recorded light brightness was consistent with the ground luminous intensity measured by the SQMs in both the spatial (R2 = 0.72) and temporal dimensions (R2 > 0.94), and that the average city light brightness was consistent with the sky brightness in the temporal dimension (R2 = 0.98), indicating that UAV images can reliably monitor the city's night-time brightness. The temporal analysis showed that different locations had different patterns of temporal changes in their night-time brightness, implying that inter-calibration of two kinds of satellite images with different overpass times would be a challenge. Combining an urban function map of 18 classes and the hourly UAV images, we found that urban functions differed in their temporal light dynamics. For example, the outdoor sports field lost 97.28% of its measured brightness between 8: 08 PM – 4:05 AM, while an administrative building only lost 4.56%, and the entire study area lost 61.86% of its total brightness. Within our study area, the period between 9:06 PM and 10:05 PM was the period with largest amount of light loss. The spectral analysis we conducted showed that city light colors were different in some urban functions, with the major road being the reddest region at 8:08 PM and becoming even redder at 4:05 AM. This preliminary study indicates that UAVs are a good tool to investigate city light at night, and that city light is very complex in both of the temporal and spatial dimensions, requiring comprehensive investigation using more advanced UAV techniques, and emphasizing the need for geostationary platforms for night-time light sensors.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3014
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Author Croft, T.A.
Title Burning Waste Gas in Oil Fields Type Journal Article
Year 1973 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature
Volume (down) 245 Issue 5425 Pages 375-376
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract I WAS recently amazed by some night-time spacecraft photographs, exemplified by Fig. 1, that present graphic evidence of waste and pollution. These were obtained by the United States Air Force DAPP system which has sensors in the visible 0.4 to 1.1 µm band and an infrared imaging system in the 8 to 13 µm band (ref. 1 and J. L. McLucas, personal communication). The visible band sensor is Capable of responding to very dim light with a controllable threshold (T. O. Haig, personal communication) and it provided these pictures. The lights of cities are clearly visible, as are the aurora, surface features illuminated by moonlight, and fires such as those caused by burning gas from oil fields and refineries. Much power is evidently being generated to light the cities of the world since at the inhabited areas are clearly outlined. It is also apparent that, in the process of extracting liquid petroleum from beneath the surface of the Earth, abundant gas supply has been discovered but is not used. Being unable to contain the gas or to transport it to a user, it is simply burnt.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2365
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Author Li, M.; Koks, E.; Taubenböck, H.; van Vliet, J.
Title Continental-scale mapping and analysis of 3D building structure Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment
Volume (down) 245 Issue Pages 111859
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Urban land use is often characterized based on the presence of built-up land, while the land use intensity of different locations is ignored. This narrow focus is at least partially due to a lack of data on the vertical dimension of urban land. The potential of Earth observation data to fill this gap has already been shown, but this has not yet been applied at large spatial scales. This study aims to map urban 3D building structure, i.e. building footprint, height, and volume, for Europe, the US, and China using random forest models. Our models perform well, as indicated by R2 values of 0.90 for building footprint, 0.81 for building height, and 0.88 for building volume, for all three case regions combined. In our multidimensional input variables, we find that built-up density derived from the Global Urban Footprint (GUF) is the most important variable for estimating building footprint, while backscatter intensity of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is the most important variable for estimating building height. A combination of the two is essential to estimate building volume. Our analysis further highlights the heterogeneity of 3D building structure across space. Specifically, buildings in China tend to be taller on average (10.35 m) compared to Europe (7.37 m) and the US (6.69 m). At the same time, the building volume per capita in China is lowest, with 302.3 m3 per capita, while Europe and the US show estimates of 404.6 m3 and 565.4 m3, respectively. The results of this study (3D building structure data for Europe, the US, and China) are publicly available, and can be used for further analysis of urban environment, spatial planning, and land use projections.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2918
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