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Author Kocifaj, M.; Kundracik, F.; Bilý, O.
Title Emission spectra of light-pollution sources determined from the light-scattering spectrometry of the night sky Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal
Volume 491 Issue 4 Pages 5586-5594
Keywords Skyglow; Remote Sensing
Abstract The emission spectrum of a light-pollution source is a determining factor for modelling artificial light at night. The spectral composition of skyglow is normally derived from the initial spectra of all artificial light sources contributing to the diffuse illumination of an observation point. However, light scattering in the ambient atmosphere imposes a wavelength-specific distortion on the optical signals captured by the measuring device. The nature of the emission, the spectra and the light-scattering phenomena not only control the spectral properties of the ground-reaching radiation, but also provide a unique tool for remote diagnosis and even identification of the emission spectra of the light-polluting sources. This is because the information contained in the night-sky brightness is preferably measured in directions towards a glowing dome of light over the artificial source of light. We have developed a new method for obtaining the emission spectra using remote terrestrial sensing of the bright patches of sky associated with a source. Field experiments conducted in Vienna and Bratislava have been used to validate the theoretical model and the retrieval method. These experiments demonstrate that the numerical inversion is successful even if the signal-to-noise ratio is small. The method for decoding the emission spectra by the light-scattering spectrometry of a night sky is a unique approach that enables for (i) a systematic characterization of the light-pollution sources over a specific territory, and (ii) a significant improvement in the numerical prediction of skyglow changes that we can expect at observatories.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2793
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Author Chen, X.
Title Nighttime Lights and Population Migration: Revisiting Classic Demographic Perspectives with an Analysis of Recent European Data Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 12 Issue 1 Pages 169
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract This study examines whether the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) nighttime lights can be used to predict population migration in small areas in European Union (EU) countries. The analysis uses the most current data measured at the smallest administrative unit in 18 EU countries provided by the European Commission. The ordinary least squares regression model shows that, compared to population size and gross domestic product (GDP), lights data are another useful predictor. The predicting power of lights is similar to population but it is much stronger than GDP per capita. For most countries, regression models with lights can explain 50–90% of variances in small area migrations. The results also show that the annual VIIRS lights (2015–2016) are slightly better predictors for migration population than averaged monthly VIIRS lights (2014–2017), and their differences are more pronounced in high latitude countries. Further, analysis of quadratic models, models with interaction effects and spatial lag, shows the significant effect of lights on migration in the European region. The study concludes that VIIRS nighttime lights hold great potential for studying human migration flow, and further open the door for more widespread application of remote sensing information in studying dynamic demographic processes.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2794
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Author Andrade-Núñez, M.J.; Aide, T.M.
Title The Socio-Economic and Environmental Variables Associated with Hotspots of Infrastructure Expansion in South America Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 12 Issue 1 Pages 116
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract The built environment, defined as all human-made infrastructure, is increasing to fulfill the demand for human settlements, productive systems, mining, and industries. Due to the profound direct and indirect impacts that the built environment produces on natural ecosystems, it is considered a major driver of land change and biodiversity loss, and a major component of global environmental change. In South America, a global producer of minerals and agricultural commodities, and a region with many biodiversity hotspots, infrastructure expanded considerably between 2001 and 2011. This expansion occurred mainly in rural areas, towns, and sprawling suburban areas that were not previously developed. Herein, we characterized the areas of major infrastructure expansion between 2001 and 2011 in South America. We used nighttime light data, land use maps, and socio-economic and environmental variables to answer the following questions: (1) Where are the hotspots of infrastructure expansion located? and (2) What combination of socio-economic and environmental variables are associated with infrastructure expansion? Hotspots of infrastructure expansion encompass 70% (337,310 km2) of the total infrastructure expansion occurring between 2001 and 2011 across South America. Urban population and economic growth, mean elevation, and mean road density were the main variables associated with the hotspots, grouping them into eight clusters. Furthermore, within the hotspots, woody vegetation increased around various urban centers, and several areas showed a large increase in agriculture. Investments in large scale infrastructure projects, and the expansion and intensification of productive systems (e.g., agriculture and meat production) play a dominant role in the increase of infrastructure across South America. We expect that under the current trends of globalization and land changes, infrastructure will continue increasing and expanding into no-development areas and remote places. Therefore, to fully understand the direct and indirect impacts of land use change in natural ecosystems studies of infrastructure need to expand to areas beyond cities. This will provide better land management alternatives for the conservation of biodiversity as well as peri-urban areas across South America.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2798
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Author Sun, L.; Tang, L.; Shao, G.; Qiu, Q.; Lan, T.; Shao, J.
Title A Machine Learning-Based Classification System for Urban Built-Up Areas Using Multiple Classifiers and Data Sources Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 12 Issue 1 Pages 91
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Information about urban built-up areas is important for urban planning and management. However, obtaining accurate information about urban built-up areas is a challenge. This study developed a general-purpose built-up area intelligent classification (BAIC) system that supports various types of data and classifiers. All of the steps in the BAIC were implemented using Python modules including Numpy, Pandas, matplotlib, and scikit-learn. We used the BAIC to conduct a classification experiment that involved seven types of input data; namely, Point of Interest (POI), Road Network (RN), nighttime light (NTL), a combination of POI and RN data (POIRN), a combination of POI and NTL data (POINTL), a combination of RN and NTL data (RNNTL), and a combination of POI, RN, and NTL data (POIRNNTL), and five classifiers, namely, Logistic Regression (LR), Decision Tree (DT), Random Forests (RF), Gradient Boosted Decision Trees (GBDT), and AdaBoost. The results show the following: (1) among the 35 combinations of the five classifiers and seven types of input data, the overall accuracy (OA) ranged from 76 to 89%, F1 values ranged from 0.73 to 0.86, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) ranged from 0.83 to 0.95. The largest F1 value and OA were obtained using the POIRNNTL data and AdaBoost, while the largest AUC was obtained using POIRNNTL and POINTL data against AdaBoost, LR, and RF; and (2) the advantages of the BAIC include its support for multi-source input data, its objective accuracy assessment, and its robust classifiers. The BAIC can quickly and efficiently realize the automatic classification of urban built-up areas at a reasonably low cost and can be readily applied to other urban areas in the world where any kind of POI, RN, or NTL data coverage is available. The results of this study are expected to provide timely and effective reference information for urban planning and urban management departments, and could also potentially be used to develop large-scale maps of urban built-up areas in the future.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2800
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Author Chang, Y.; Wang, S.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, L.; Wang, F.
Title A Novel Method of Evaluating Highway Traffic Prosperity Based on Nighttime Light Remote Sensing Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 12 Issue 1 Pages 102
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract As the backbone and arteries of a comprehensive transportation network, highways play an important role in improving people’s living standards and promoting economic growth. However, globally, there is limited quantifiable data evaluating the highway traffic state, characteristics, and performance. From the 1960s to the present, remote sensing has been regarded as the most effective technology for long-term and large-scale monitoring of surface information. However, how to reflect the dynamic “flow” information of traffic with a static remote sensing image has always been a difficult problem that is hard to solve in the field. This study aims to construct a method of evaluating highway traffic prosperity using nighttime remote sensing. First, based on nighttime light data that indicate social and economic activities, a highway-oriented method was proposed to extract highway nighttime light data from 2015 annual nighttime light data of the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite sensor (SNPP-VIIRS). Subsequently, Pearson correlation analysis was used to fit the relationship between freeway traffic flow volume and freeway nighttime light at the provincial level. The results showed that Pearson Correlation Coefficient of freeway nighttime light and freeway traffic flow volume for coach and truck are 0.905 and 0.731, respectively, which are higher than between freeway traffic flow volume for coach and truck and total nighttime light (0.593 and 0.516, respectively). A new index—Highway Nighttime Traffic Prosperity Index (HNTPI)—was proposed to evaluate highway traffic across China. The results showed that HNTPI has a strong correspondence with socio-economic parameters. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient of HNTPI and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, consumption per capita, and population are 0.772, 0.895, and 0.968, respectively. There is a huge spatial heterogeneity in China nighttime traffic, the prosperity degree of highway traffic in developed coastal areas is obviously higher than that inland. The national general highway is the most prosperous highway at night and the national general highway nighttime prosperity of Shanghai reached 22.34%. This research provides basic data for the long-term monitoring and evaluation of regional traffic operation at night and research on the correlation between regional highway construction and the economy.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2801
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