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Author Guk, E.; Levin, N.
Title Analyzing spatial variability in night-time lights using a high spatial resolution color Jilin-1 image – Jerusalem as a case study Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing
Volume 163 Issue Pages 121-136
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract In recent decades, there has been an increase in artificial lighting in the world due to urbanization and the revolution of LED lighting. Artificial lighting is an indicator of human activity, but can adversely affect natural ecosystems and people due to negative impacts of light pollution. Space-borne and airborne imagery as well as ground-based measurements enable to measure the intensity and spectra of artificial lights. One of the challenges in remote sensing of night-time lights is how to ground truth night-time imagery acquired by satellites, and how much do space-borne measurements represent the brightness as perceived by organisms. Most of the studies on night-time lights to-date were done using panchromatic sensors at large spatial extents, which did not allow to examine intra-urban variation in night light intensity and spectra. The aim of this study was to test the capability of the new Chinese satellite Jilin-1, which is the first commercial satellite to offer multispectral night-light imagery at a spatial resolution below 1 m, to characterize the night-time properties of urban areas. We examined the correspondence between light intensities as measured from different sensors at different spatial resolutions: two Jilin-1 images of the Jerusalem metropolitan area (0.89 m), VIIRS/DNB (500 m), Loujia-1 (130 m), unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) color image (0.05 m) and hemispherical color photographs taken by a calibrated ground DSLR (digital single-lens reflex camera). In all the comparisons between different remote sensing tools, as the spatial resolution coarsened, the Pearson correlation coefficient increased, reaching > 0.5 (after resampling to 100 m). Stronger correlations were found for the red band, and weaker correlations were found for the blue band, probably due to atmospheric scattering. By identifying specific objects such as buildings and lightings, we found good correspondence () between Jilin-1 and the ground-based measurements of night-time brightness. We further examined the variability of night lights within different land use types and within different ethnic/religion composition of statistical areas. We found that residential areas of Orthodox Jews were characterized with the highest brightness at night compared with residential areas of Arabs in the West Bank that had the lowest brightness. At the statistical zone level (n = 299), more than 50% of the variability in night-time brightness, was explained by land cover properties (NDVI), infrastructure (roads and built volume) and the ethnic/religious composition. In addition, we found that the spectral ratio index which was based on the red and green bands, enabled to better distinguish between land use classes, than the spectral ratio index which was based on the green and blue bands. The availability of night-time multi-spectral imagery at fine spatial resolution now enables to study urban land-use and spatial inequality, and to better understand the factors explaining night-time brightness.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0924-2716 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2857
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Author Swardika, I.K.; Santiary, P.A.W.; Suasnawa, I.W.
Title Preliminary study of building a low-carbon emission concept for Bali with nocturnal light analysis Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Journal of Physics: Conference Series Abbreviated Journal J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.
Volume 1450 Issue Pages 012038
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Energy crisis and increase energy consume initiate depletion of natural resources and environmental degradation and that will leads to global warming and climate change. Nowadays, tourism considered being one of the important industries in the world. It also acknowledged as significant largest consumers of energy through many sectors including supporting facilities for tourists that focused on this paper. Bali's most important tourist destination and become proponent of economic has many resorts surrounded by business trade support. Increasing electricity demand becomes present issues. This paper proposes a method to build community-based initiatives for reducing carbon emissions and saving energy. The method consists of procedural to build light threshold regulation. This research uses light-meter survey, a night-time satellite dataset, and other supporting data. The light threshold uses night-time satellite dataset. Classes of light thresholds are defined from histogram analysis. Results show a relationship of lux light-meter survey mean with night-time satellite dataset mean. From results created maps of class regions that show approximate of level energy used.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1742-6588 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2858
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Author Ma, J.; Guo, J.; Ahmad, S.; Li, Z.; Hong, J.
Title Constructing a New Inter-Calibration Method for DMSP-OLS and NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 12 Issue 6 Pages 937
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract The anthropogenic nighttime light (NTL) data that are acquired by satellites can characterize the intensity of human activities on the ground. It has been widely used in urban development assessment, socioeconomic estimate, and other applications. However, currently, the two main sensors, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) and Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Satellite’s Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (NPP-VIIRS), provide inconsistent data. Hence, the application of NTL for long-term analysis is hampered. This study constructed a new inter-calibration method for DMSP-OLS and NPP-VIIRS nighttime light to solve this problem. First, NTL data were processed to obtain vicarious site across China. By comparing different candidate models, it is discovered the Biphasic Dose Response (BiDoseResp) model, which is a weighted combination of sigmoid functions, can best perform the regression between DMSP-OLS and logarithmically transformed NPP-VIIRS. The coefficient of determination of BiDoseResp model reaches 0.967. It’s residual sum of squares is 6.136×105 , which is less than 6.199×105 of Logistic function. After obtaining the BiDoseResp-calibrated VIIRS (BDRVIIRS), we smoothed it by a filter with optimal parameters to maximize the consistency. The result shows that the consistency of NTL data is greatly enhanced after calibration. In 2013, the correlation coefficient between DMSP-OLS and original NPP-VIIRS data in the China region is only 0.621, while that reaches to 0.949 after calibration. Finally, a consistent NTL dataset of China from 1992 to 2018 was produced. When compared with the existing methods, our method is applicable to the full dynamic range of DMSP-OLS. Besides, it is more suitable for country or larger scale areas. It is expected that this method can greatly facilitate the development of research that is based on the historical NTL archive.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2860
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Author Wang, J.; Zhou, M.; Xu, X.; Roudini, S.; Sander, S.P.; Pongetti, T.J.; Miller, S.D.; Reid, J.S.; Hyer, E.; Spurr, R.
Title Development of a nighttime shortwave radiative transfer model for remote sensing of nocturnal aerosols and fires from VIIRS Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment
Volume 241 Issue Pages 111727
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract The launch of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board the Sumo-NPP satellite in 2011 ushered in a new era of using visible light and shortwave radiation at night to characterize aerosol and fire distributions from space. In order to exploit the full range of unprecedented observational capabilities of VIIRS, we have developed a nighttime shortwave radiative transfer model capability in the UNified and Linearized Radiative Transfer Model (UNL-VRTM). This capability is based on the use of additional source functions to treat illumination from the Moon, from fires, and from artificial lights. We have applied this model to address fundamental questions associated with the VIIRS sensing of aerosol and fire at night. Detailed description of model developments and validation (either directly with surface measurements of lunar spectra or indirectly through cross validation) are presented. Our analysis reveals that: (a) when convolution with the broad-range (500–900 nm) relative spectral response (RSR) function of the VIIRS Day-Night Band (DNB) is omitted, AOD retrieval from the DNB have uncertainties up to a factor of two in conditions with low or moderate AOD (<0.5 in mid-visible); (b) using a wavelength independent spectrum for the surface illumination source can lead to an AOD bias of −10% over surfaces illuminated by light-emitting diodes and fluorescent lamps, and −30% illuminated by high-pressure sodium lamps; and (c) a DNB-equivalent narrow band for AOD retrieval over the surfaces illuminated by the three types of bulbs studied in this paper is found to be centered at 585 nm at which the look-up table can be generated for AOD retrieval from DNB. Furthermore, while uncertainty in AOD retrievals from the DNB decreases as AOD increases, fire characterization can be affected by AOD; for a smoke-scenario AOD of 2.0, the DNB and SWIR (1.6 μm) radiances can be reduced by 50% depending on the fire area fraction and temperature within VIIRS pixel. DNB is overall more sensitive to smaller and cooler fires than SWIR and can be used to retrieve AOD over bright surfaces. Finally, three-dimensional (3D) radiative transfer effects and the non-collimated nature of most artificial light sources are neglected in this 1D radiative transfer (plane-parallel) model, resulting in possibly large uncertainties (e.g., the inability to reproduce side-illumination of clouds by city lights) that should be studied in future.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2863
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Author Crespo Cuaresma, J.; Danylo, O.; Fritz, S.; Hofer, M.; Kharas, H.; Laso Bayas, J.C.
Title What do we know about poverty in North Korea? Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Palgrave Communications Abbreviated Journal Palgrave Commun
Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages in press
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Reliable quantitative information on the North Korean economy is extremely scarce. In particular, reliable income per capita and poverty figures for the country are not available. In this contribution, we provide for the first time estimates of absolute poverty rates in North Korean subnational regions based on the combination of innovative remote-sensed night-time light intensity data (monthly information for built areas) with estimated income distributions. Our results, which are robust to the use of different methods to approximate the income distribution in the country, indicate that the share of persons living in extreme poverty in North Korea may be larger than previously thought. We estimate a poverty rate for the country of around 60% in 2018 and a high volatility in the dynamics of income at the national level in North Korea for the period 2012–2018. Income per capita estimates tend to decline significantly from 2012 to 2015 and present a recovery since 2016. The subnational estimates of income and poverty reveal a change in relative dynamics since the second half of the 2012–2018 period. The first part of the period is dominated by divergent dynamics in income across regions, while the second half reveals convergence in regional income.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2055-1045 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2866
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