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Author Salat, H.; Smoreda, Z.; Schlapfer, M.
Title A method to estimate population densities and electricity consumption from mobile phone data in developing countries Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages e0235224
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract High quality census data are not always available in developing countries. Instead, mobile phone data are becoming a popular proxy to evaluate the density, activity and social characteristics of a population. They offer additional advantages: they are updated in real-time, include mobility information and record visitors' activity. However, we show with the example of Senegal that the direct correlation between the average phone activity and both the population density and the nighttime lights intensity may be insufficiently high to provide an accurate representation of the situation. There are reasons to expect this, such as the heterogeneity of the market share or the particular granularity of the distribution of cell towers. In contrast, we present a method based on the daily, weekly and yearly phone activity curves and on the network characteristics of the mobile phone data, that allows to estimate more accurately such information without compromising people's privacy. This information can be vital for development and infrastructure planning. In particular, this method could help to reduce significantly the logistic costs of data collection in the particularly budget-constrained context of developing countries.
Address Future Cities Laboratory, Singapore-ETH Centre, ETH Zurich, Singapore, Singapore
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32603345 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3030
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Author Paksarian, D.; Rudolph, K.E.; Stapp, E.K.; Dunster, G.P.; He, J.; Mennitt, D.; Hattar, S.; Casey, J.A.; James, P.; Merikangas, K.R.
Title Association of Outdoor Artificial Light at Night With Mental Disorders and Sleep Patterns Among US Adolescents Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication JAMA Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal JAMA Psychiatry
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Human Health; Remote Sensing
Abstract Importance: Indoor nighttime light exposure influences sleep and circadian rhythms and is known to affect mood-associated brain circuits in animals. However, little is known about the association between levels of nighttime outdoor light and sleep and mental health in the population, especially among adolescents. Objective: To estimate associations of outdoor artificial light at night (ALAN) with sleep patterns and past-year mental disorder among US adolescents. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based, cross-sectional study of US adolescents used the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey conducted from February 2001 through January 2004. A probability sample of adolescents aged 13 to 18 years was included. Analyses were conducted between February 2019 and April 2020. Exposures: Levels of outdoor ALAN, measured by satellite, with means calculated within census block groups. ALAN values were transformed into units of radiance (nW/cm2/sr). Main Outcomes and Measures: Self-reported habitual sleep patterns (weeknight bedtime, weeknight sleep duration, weekend bedtime delay, and weekend oversleep) and past-year mood, anxiety, behavior, and substance use disorders, measured via an in-person structured diagnostic interview. Parent-reported information was included in behavior disorder diagnoses. Results: Among 10123 adolescents (4953 boys [51.3%]; mean [SE] age, 15.2 [0.06] years [weighted]; 6483 for behavior disorder outcomes), ALAN was positively associated with indicators of social disadvantage, such as racial/ethnic minority status (median [IQR] ALAN: white adolescents, 12.96 [30.51] nW/cm2/sr; Hispanic adolescents: 38.54 [47.84] nW/cm2/sr; non-Hispanic black adolescents: 37.39 [51.88] nW/cm2/sr; adolescents of other races/ethnicities: 30.94 [49.93] nW/cm2/sr; P < .001) and lower family income (median [IQR] ALAN by family income-to-poverty ratio </=1.5: 26.76 [52.48] nW/cm2/sr; >6: 21.46 [34.38] nW/cm2/sr; P = .005). After adjustment for several sociodemographic characteristics, as well as area-level population density and socioeconomic status, this study found that higher ALAN levels were associated with later weeknight bedtime, and those in the lowest quartile of ALAN reported the longest weeknight sleep duration. Those in the highest quartile of ALAN went to bed 29 (95% CI, 15-43) minutes later and reported 11 (95% CI, 19-2) fewer minutes of sleep than those in the lowest quartile. ALAN was also positively associated with prevalence of past-year mood and anxiety disorder: each median absolute deviation increase in ALAN was associated with 1.07 (95% CI, 1.00-1.14) times the odds of mood disorder and 1.10 (95% CI, 1.05-1.16) times the odds of anxiety disorder. Further analyses revealed associations with bipolar disorder (odds ratio [OR], 1.19 [95% CI, 1.05-1.35]), specific phobias (OR, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.11-1.26]), and major depressive disorder or dysthymia (OR, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.00-1.15]). Among adolescent girls, differences in weeknight bedtime by ALAN (third and fourth quartiles vs first quartile) were greater with increasing years since menarche (F3, 8.15; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, area-level outdoor ALAN was associated with less favorable sleep patterns and mood and anxiety disorder in adolescents. Future studies should elucidate whether interventions to reduce exposure to ALAN may positively affect mental and sleep health.
Address Genetic Epidemiology Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2168-622X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32639562 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3034
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Author Jia, T.; Chen, K.; Li, X.
Title Exploring the Factors Controlling Nighttime Lights from Prefecture Cities in Mainland China with the Hierarchical Linear Model Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 12 Issue 13 Pages 2119
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Nighttime light data have been proven to be valuable for socioeconomic studies. However, they are not only affected by anthropogenic factors but also by physical factors, and previous studies have rarely examined these diverse variables in a systematic way that explains differences in nighttime lights across different cities. In this paper, hierarchical linear models at two levels of city and province were developed to investigate the nighttime lights effect on cross-level factors. An experiment was conducted for 281 prefecture cities in Mainland China using orbital satellite data in 2016. (1) There exist significant differences among city average lights, of which 49.9% is caused at the provincial level, indicating the factors at the provincial level cannot be ignored. (2) Economy-energy-infrastructure and demography factors have a significant positive lights effect. Meanwhile, industry-information and living-standard factors at the provincial level can further significantly increase these differences by 18.30% and 29.01%, respectively. (3) The natural-greenness factor displayed a significant negative lights effect, and its interaction with natural-ecology will continue to decrease city lights by 11.99%. However, artificial-greenness is an unreliable city-level factor explaining lights variations. (4) As for the negative lights effect of elevation and latitude, these become significant in a multivariate context and contribute lights indirectly. (5) The two-level hierarchical linear models are statistically significant at the level of 10%, and compared with the null model, the explained variances on city lights can be improved by 70% at the city level and 90% at the provincial level in the final mixed effect model.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3037
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Author Gao, S.; Chen, Y.; Liang, L.; Gong, A.
Title Post-Earthquake Night-Time Light Piecewise (PNLP) Pattern Based on NPP/VIIRS Night-Time Light Data: A Case Study of the 2015 Nepal Earthquake Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 12 Issue 12 Pages 2009
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Earthquakes are unpredictable and potentially destructive natural disasters that take a long time to recover from. Monitoring post-earthquake human activity (HA) is of great significance to recovery and reconstruction work. There is a strong correlation between night-time light (NTL) and HA, which aid in the study of spatiotemporal changes in post-earthquake human activities. However, seasonal and noise impact from National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Satellite Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (NPP/VIIRS) data greatly limits their application. To tackle these issues, random noise and seasonal fluctuation of NPP/VIIRS from January 2014 to December 2018 is removed by adopting the seasonal-trend decomposition procedure based on loess (STL). Based on the theory of post-earthquake recovery model, a post-earthquake night-time light piecewise (PNLP) pattern is explored by employing the National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Satellite Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (NPP/VIIRS) monthly data. PNLP indicators, including pre-earthquake development rate (kp), recovery rate (kr1), reconstruction rate (kr2), development rate (kd), relative reconstruction rate (krp) and loss (S), are defined to describe the PNLP pattern. Furthermore, the 2015 Nepal earthquake is chosen as a case study and the spatiotemporal changes in different areas are analyzed. The results reveal that: (1) STL is an effective algorithm for obtaining HA trend from the time series of denoising NTL; (2) the PNLP pattern, divided into four phases, namely the emergency phase (EP), recovery phase (RP-1), reconstruction phase (RP-2), and development phase (DP), aptly describes the variation in post-earthquake HA; (3) PNLP indicators are capable of evaluating the recovery differences across regions. The main socio-economic factors affecting the PNLP pattern and PNLP indicators are energy source for lighting, type of building, agricultural economy, and human poverty index. Based on the NPP/VIIRS data, the PNLP pattern can reflect the periodical changes of HA after earthquakes and provide an effective means for the analysis and evaluation of post-earthquake recovery and reconstruction.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3038
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Author Tabaka, P.
Title Pilot Measurement of Illuminance in the Context of Light Pollution Performed with an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 12 Issue 13 Pages 2124
Keywords Instrumentation; Remote Sensing
Abstract This article presents the methodology and results of pilot field illuminance measurements using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The main goal of the study was to quantify the luminous flux emitted in the upper hemisphere (toward the sky) based on obtained measurement data. The luminous flux emitted toward the sky is the source of undesirable light pollution. For test purposes, a height-adjustable mobile park lantern was constructed, at the top of which any type of luminaire can be installed. In the pilot measurements, two real opal sphere-type luminaires were considered. The lantern was situated in an open area located away from a large city agglomeration. To determine the unusable luminous flux, illuminance was measured, placing the necessary measuring equipment on board a UAV. The measurements were supplemented with the registration of illuminance on the ground upon which the lantern was installed. Based on these data, the useful luminous flux was calculated. The findings show that UAVs may be successfully used for the assessment of the influence of lighting on the light pollution effect.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3040
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