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Author Croft, T.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The brightness of lights on Earth at night, digitally recorded by DMSP satellite Type Report
  Year (up) 1979 Publication USGS Numbered Series Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 80-167 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract The U.S. Air Force has operated its Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) for nearly a decade, and film images from the system have been openly available since 1973. Films are well suited for the study of weather, and users of such films have derived much useful data. For many potential remote sensing applications, however, a quantitative measurement of the brightness of the imaged light patterns is needed, and it cannot be extracted with adequte accuracy from the films. Such information is contained in the telemetry from the spacecraft and is retained on digital tapes, which store the images for a few days while they await filming. For practical reasons, it has not heretofore been feasible for the Air Force to provide a remote-sensing user with these digital data, and the quantitative brightness information has been lost with the erasure of tapes for re-use.

For the purpose of evaluation of tapes as a means for remote sensing, the Air Force recently did provide to the author six examples containing records of nighttime DMSP imagery similar to that which has previously 1 been evaluated by SRI International in a film format. The digital data create many new applications for these images, owing to a combination of several factors, the most important of which are the preservation of photometric information and of full spatial resolution. In this evaluation, stress has been placed upon determination of the broad potential value of the data rather than the full exploitation of any one aspect of it. The effort was guided by an objective to develop handling methods for the vast body of numbers--methods which will be practical for use in a research or engineering environment where budgets are limited, and specialized capabilities and image reproduction equipment has not already been developed. We report the degree of success obtained in this effort, pointing out the relative strengths and the relative limitations, as compared to the sophisticated, weather-oriented data processing which is well suited for the Air Force requirements.

Both geometric and photometric calibration methods are evaluated. An image can be considered as a 3-dimensional array, X, Y, Z, in which X and Y are the coordinates of a picture element (pixel) and Z is the brightness at that location. A method of approach to handling these parameters, particularly Y and Z, is developed in a form quite different from that which serves the operational applications.

The user of digital data will need the film images which are generated by the Air Force from the same data as is provided on digital tape. In the first stages of analysis, the films provide both a convenient index and a guide to identification of large patterns in the data. Additionally, the infrared (8 to 13 0 film provides a valuable indicator of cloud cover.

Two general conclusions are drawn from this study. Firstly, the digital DMSP data have great potential value but their cost, in terms of the interruption of the present operational routine, is quite high. Therefore, if a program is undertaken to provide for the open availability of an archive of digital records, great care must be exercised in selecting only those records which have unusually high value in order that the effort will be cost-effective. Secondly, it is concluded that several aspects of the program, well designed for Air Force operational purposes, are not adapted to earth-sensing needs. This is probably inevitable, since the two applications are largely different and in some ways incompatible. For example, the nighttime visual sensor saturates in the center of major cities and in moderately large fires (such as gas flares). This saturation prevents the analyst from integrating photometric parameters. For weather observation, this inability is unimportant, and acceptance of such saturation makes feasible a decrease in the data rate.

Such limitations in the data will probably be overcome only through modifying the existing system or the implementation of a similar system designed specifically to serve earth-sensing needs.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2384  
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Author Eather, R.H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title DMSP calibration Type Journal Article
  Year (up) 1979 Publication Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Abbreviated Journal J. Geophys. Res.  
  Volume 84 Issue A8 Pages 4134-4144  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Although DMSP satellite data are widely used, there has been no reliable absolute calibration. Coordinated data with ground‐based photometers allow a calibration curve of film density versus 4728 N2+ intensity to be derived. The DMSP satellites (5C series) record airglow and can detect auroral forms of intensities ≥50 R of 4278 N2+. It is estimated that the 5D series satellites are capable of detecting auroras with ∼25 R of 4278 N2+.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0148-0227 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2385  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Welch, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Monitoring urban population and energy utilization patterns from satellite Data Type Journal Article
  Year (up) 1980 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment  
  Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 1-9  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Urban population trends in China and energy utilization patterns in the United States have been assessed from LANDSAT and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) images. Regression models developed from population (P) data and urban area (A) measurements on LANDSAT images are of the form P = αAb and provide insights into the success of Chinese urban planning policies for cities with populations of 500,000 to 2,000,000 people. Studies of the relationships between population, urban area, and electric-energy utilization patterns have been conducted from DMSP images of the United States. Microdensitometer profiles of illuminated cities recorded on nighttime (visual band) images are used in combination with the map boundaries of the built-up areas to create unique three-dimensional representations of the urban centers. The volumes of these three-dimensional figures may be computed and plotted with respect to population and/or energy utilization data to model regional patterns of use. Improvements in the quality of sensor data should increase the potential for monitoring urban energy demands and populations.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2382  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Gunn, J.E.; Stryker, L.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Stellar spectrophotometric atlas, wavelengths from 3130 to 10800 A Type Journal Article
  Year (up) 1983 Publication The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Abbreviated Journal ApJS  
  Volume 52 Issue Pages 121  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0067-0049 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 943  
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Author Jacoby, G.H.; Hunter, D.A.; Christian, C.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A library of stellar spectra Type Journal Article
  Year (up) 1984 Publication The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Abbreviated Journal ApJS  
  Volume 56 Issue Pages 257  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0067-0049 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 952  
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