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Author Rumanova, V.S.; Okuliarova, M.; Zeman, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Differential Effects of Constant Light and Dim Light at Night on the Circadian Control of Metabolism and Behavior Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication (up) International Journal of Molecular Sciences Abbreviated Journal Int J Mol Sci  
  Volume 21 Issue 15 Pages  
  Keywords Review; Animals; behavior; chronodisruption; circadian; corticosterone; dim light at night; hormones; locomotor activity; melatonin; metabolism; rhythms  
  Abstract The disruption of circadian rhythms by environmental conditions can induce alterations in body homeostasis, from behavior to metabolism. The light:dark cycle is the most reliable environmental agent, which entrains circadian rhythms, although its credibility has decreased because of the extensive use of artificial light at night. Light pollution can compromise performance and health, but underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The present review assesses the consequences induced by constant light (LL) in comparison with dim light at night (dLAN) on the circadian control of metabolism and behavior in rodents, since such an approach can identify the key mechanisms of chronodisruption. Data suggest that the effects of LL are more pronounced compared to dLAN and are directly related to the light level and duration of exposure. Dim LAN reduces nocturnal melatonin levels, similarly to LL, but the consequences on the rhythms of corticosterone and behavioral traits are not uniform and an improved quantification of the disrupted rhythms is needed. Metabolism is under strong circadian control and its disruption can lead to various pathologies. Moreover, metabolism is not only an output, but some metabolites and peripheral signal molecules can feedback on the circadian clockwork and either stabilize or amplify its desynchronization.  
  Address Department of Animal Physiology and Ethology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, Ilkovicova 6, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovakia  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1422-0067 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32751870 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3062  
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Author Zhao, Z., Zhou, Y., Tan, G., & Li, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Research progress about the effect and prevention of blue light on eyes Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (up) International Journal of Ophthalmology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 11 Issue 12 Pages 1999-2003  
  Keywords Vision; Human Health; Review  
  Abstract In recent years, people have become increasingly attentive to light pollution influences on their eyes. In the visible spectrum, short-wave blue light with wavelength between 415 nm and 455 nm is closely related to eye light damage. This high energy blue light passes through the cornea and lens to the retina causing diseases such as dry eye, cataract, age-related macular degeneration, even stimulating the brain, inhibiting melatonin secretion, and enhancing adrenocortical hormone production, which will destroy the hormonal balance and directly affect sleep quality. Therefore, the effect of Blu-rays on ocular is becoming an important concern for the future. We describe blue light's effects on eye tissues, summarize the research on eye injury and its physical prevention and medical treatment.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2313  
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Author Li, X.; Zhou, Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Urban mapping using DMSP/OLS stable night-time light: a review Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication (up) International Journal of Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Remote Sensing  
  Volume 38 Issue 21 Pages 6030-6046  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Review  
  Abstract The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescane System (DMSP/OLS) stable night-time light (NTL) data showed great potential in urban extent mapping across a variety of scales with historical records dating back to 1990s. In order to advance this data, a systematic methodology review on NTL-based urban extent mapping was carried out, with emphases on four aspects including the saturation of luminosity, the blooming effect, the intercalibration of time series, and their temporal pattern adjustment. We think ancillary features (e.g. land surface conditions and socioeconomic activities) can help reveal more spatial details in urban core regions with high digital number (DN) values. In addition, dynamic optimal thresholds are needed to address issues of different exaggeration of NTL data in the large scale urban mapping. Then, we reviewed three key aspects (reference region, reference satellite/year, and calibration model) in the current intercalibration framework of NTL time series, and summarized major reference regions in literature that were used for intercalibration, which is critical to achieve a globally consistent series of NTL DN values over years. Moreover, adjustment of temporal pattern on intercalibrated NTL series is needed to trace the urban sprawl process, particularly in rapidly developing regions. In addition, we analysed those applications for urban extent mapping based on the new generation NTL data of Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite. Finally, we prospected the challenges and opportunities including the improvement of temporally inconsistent NTL series, mitigation of spatial heterogeneity of blooming effect in NTL, and synthesis of different NTL satellites, in global urban extent mapping.  
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  ISSN 0143-1161 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2222  
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Author Gaston, K.J.; Holt, L.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Nature, extent and ecological implications of night‐time light from road vehicles Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (up) Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 55 Issue 5 Pages 2296-2307  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology; Lighting; Review  
  Abstract The erosion of night‐time by the introduction of artificial lighting constitutes a profound pressure on the natural environment. It has altered what had for millennia been reliable signals from natural light cycles used for regulating a host of biological processes, with impacts ranging from changes in gene expression to ecosystem processes.

Studies of these impacts have focused almost exclusively on those resulting from stationary sources of light emissions, and particularly streetlights. However, mobile sources, especially road vehicle headlights, contribute substantial additional emissions.

The ecological impacts of light emissions from vehicle headlights are likely to be especially high because these are (1) focused so as to light roadsides at higher intensities than commonly experienced from other sources, and well above activation thresholds for many biological processes; (2) projected largely in a horizontal plane and thus can carry over long distances; (3) introduced into much larger areas of the landscape than experience street lighting; (4) typically broad “white” spectrum, which substantially overlaps the action spectra of many biological processes and (5) often experienced at roadsides as series of pulses of light (produced by passage of vehicles), a dynamic known to have major biological impacts.

The ecological impacts of road vehicle headlights will markedly increase with projected global growth in numbers of vehicles and the road network, increasing the local severity of emissions (because vehicle numbers are increasing faster than growth in the road network) and introducing emissions into areas from which they were previously absent. The effects will be further exacerbated by technological developments that are increasing the intensity of headlight emissions and the amounts of blue light in emission spectra.

Synthesis and applications. Emissions from vehicle headlights need to be considered as a major, and growing, source of ecological impacts of artificial night‐time lighting. It will be a significant challenge to minimise these impacts whilst balancing drivers' needs at night and avoiding risk and discomfort for other road users. Nonetheless, there is potential to identify solutions to these conflicts, both through the design of headlights and that of roads.
 
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  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1841  
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Author Gibson J.; Olivia S.; Boe‐Gibson G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night Lights In Economics: Sources And Uses Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication (up) Journal of Economic Surveys Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Economics; Review  
  Abstract Night lights, as detected by satellites, are increasingly used by economists, typically as a proxy for economic activity. The growing popularity of these data reflects either the absence, or the presumed inaccuracy, of more conventional economic statistics, like national or regional GDP. Further growth in use of night lights is likely, as they have been included in the AidData geoquery tool for providing subnational data, and in geographic data that the Demographic and Health Survey links to anonymized survey enumeration areas. Yet, this ease of obtaining night lights data may lead to inappropriate use, if users fail to recognize that most of the satellites providing these data were not designed to assist economists, and have features that may threaten validity of analyses based on these data, especially for temporal comparisons, and for small and rural areas. In this paper, we review sources of satellite data on night lights, discuss issues with these data, and survey some of their uses in economics.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial 3177  
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